What is meant by the term self control?
The ability to control one’s behaviour and to inhibit impulsive responding to temptation. It begins to emerge in preschool years
What is the approximate chronology of the emergence of self control?
Around age 1: aware that others impose demands.
Around age 2: have internalized some controls
Around age 3: capable of self regulation.
self control develops across childhood, as can be seen in changes in performance in delay of gratification.
Describe the sticker task by lennon and Moore
3 and 4 year olds. Stickers (book, envelope(one sticker now, you can use them right away in this book or you can have two stickers later and put them in this envelope.) (multiple trials). choice between immediate and delayed (at end of game) gratification. choices: 1 now vs. 2/3/4/5 later (three times each) so 12 trials in total
Describe the 2 parental discipline styles
Inductive reasoning: explaining the situation to the child & encouraging them to think through the situation and reason on their own.
Power assertion: No explanation, boot camp parenting style.
Influences on self control across cultures
Compared toddlers in China and in Canada on a tidy up task and measured behavioural compliance. Parents filled out questionnaires. Concluded that children raised in cultures where cooperation and self restraint are highly valued demonstrated greater self control
________ behind a behavior is critical for determining whether a given behaviour is moral or immoral?
What kinds of factors do adults and the legal systems consider?
Intentions (manslaughter vs. murder) and outcome (attempted murder vs. murder)
What is Piaget’s theory of moral judgement?
In the moral judgement of a child, Piaget described how children’s moral reasoning changes. From rigid acceptance of the dictates and rules of authorities to an appreciation that moral rules are a modifiable product of social interaction. Piagets theory intially involved observing children’s games. he also conducted open ended interviews using vignettes and asking children for judgement.
What matters to children in terms of moral reasoning?
Outcomes- children tend to focus on outcomes, john is worse because he broke 15 cups instead of one
What matters to adults in terms of moral reasoning?
intentions- as adults this notion of intention is very complicated.
What is a deviant causal chain?
where a motion which fits the agent’s intention is caused, but not in the right way.
When did piaget believe children were able to consider intentions?
8-10 years of age.
Childrens understanding of inention
at around 3-4 children do not understand that actions need to be carried out in the “right way” to count as intentional. actions that bring out desired outcome are considered intentional
Childrens moral judgement are usually tied to the valence of the ________
outcome, Good vs. bad
According to Piaget what stage are 2-4 year olds in?
The premoral stage and believe that adult authority is absolute.
What stage are 5-7 year olds in?
stage of moral realism (rules must be followed and cannot be changed): heteronomous morality. Concept of immanent justice: if you break a rule there is always a consequence. Rules as external features, not as cooperative principles. Evaluation of acts based on outcomes rather than intentions.
What stage are 8-10 year olds in?
Children begin to understand the rules that are created by people to help them get along (moral relativism). Children understand that free will is an important consideration when judging mortality. Focus moves from outcome to interaction.
What are some challenges of Piaget’s views?
Children dont actually treat adults as an absolute authority in the preschool years. Children even as young as 4 or5 consider intention when judging behavior. Children can consider intentions and outcome.
Some recent research claims the understanding of morality begins much earlier
Hamlin, Wynn and Bloom. argue that infants 6 to 10 months of age can understand something about intentions and engage in simple moral reasoning. “perhaps some sense of good and evil is bred in the bone”. Puppet study.
what did Kohlberg say about how moral judgement was assessed?
Moral judgement is assessed by presenting individuals with hypothetical moral dilemmas, and then questioning about the reasons for the moral judgement (vignette sample drawn from Kohlberg).
What was Kohlberg interested in?
The reasoning people used to make their decisions. His model of moral development was based largely on male participants and analyzed answers to develop 3 levels of moral reasoning.
What did Kohlberg claim about moral reasoning?
That moral reasoning begins with obedience to authority and ends with decisions based on moral principles. Universal stages.
Describe the preconventional Level
Reasoning is controlled almost solely by obedience to authority and by rewards and punishments; it is self centered
Describe the Conventional level
Decisions are based on social norms (adults and adolescence), what people think of you based on your action
Describe the post conventional level
Moral decisions are baed on personal, moral principles (some adults; age 25+)
What Support is there for Kohlberg’s theory?
People progress through the stages in sequence, with older individuals at higher levels. Some support that moral reasoning is linked to moral behaviour.
Critiques of Kohlberg’s theory
Debated issue: gender bias, Claims of universality have not been supported- culturally biased. kolhbergs model is best suited for western philosophical and religious traditions.
Gilligans critique of Kohlbergs model
k.’s emphasis on justice was more aplicable to men than women, caring and responsibility to others may be more important than justice in moral reasoning..
What is gilligan’s model for developmental progression?
1) children start out focused on themselves and their needs
2) people begin to care for others who need their help
3) caring for self and others combined; more genereal focus on caring for all
What is the difference between Gilligan and Kohlberg?
Caring vs. Justice
How can we promote moral reasoning?
Children’s reasoning becomes more sophisticated after: discussions about moral issues and exposure to higher level of reasoning (e.g., in schools). Discussion about human rights, responsibilities and respect are valuable components of curriculum from as young as 5.
What is the thought experiment?
A thought experiment.Based on simple utilitarian principles. Which is worse injury to one person or five? Child friendly version of the trolley dilemna.