Chapter 11- Anemias of Erythropoiesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11- Anemias of Erythropoiesis Deck (20)
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1

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
Pathologic Cells

RBC, reduced
production

2

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
Patients

Females of
reproductive age the
most frequently
involved in the U.S

3

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
Unique Features

Most common cause of
anemia (iron is needed for Hg), most frequently due to chronic blood loss in the U.S. (e.g. colon cancer, leiomyomas),
low dietary intake is common
in developing nations,
microcytic and hypochromic
RBCs

4

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
Prognosis

Patients may be asymptomatic or
manifest with mild anemia (fatigue, weakness, mildly reduced cognition), no impact is observed on lifespan

5

Megaloblastic anemias
a. Folic acid deficiency
b. Vitamin B12 deficiency

Pathologic Cells

RBC, reduced production

6

Megaloblastic anemias
a. Folic acid deficiency
b. Vitamin B12 deficiency

Patients

a) Folic acid:
anyone with a very poor diet or malabsorption

b) Vitamin B12:
older adults with pernicious anemia, strict vegans

7

Megaloblastic anemias
a. Folic acid deficiency
b. Vitamin B12 deficiency

Unique Features

Dietary deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12 produced defective DNA synthesis and megaloblasts are produces, which causes macrocytic and
hyperchromic RBCs, vitamin B12 produces neurologic abnormalities: CNS & PNS

Both respond well to nutrient supplementation

8

Megaloblastic anemias
a. Folic acid deficiency
b. Vitamin B12 deficiency

Prognosis

Patients recover well from folic acid or Vitamin B12 supplementation
therapy, no impact is observed on lifespan

9

Anemia of chronic disease
Pathologic Cells

RBC, reduced
production

10

Anemia of chronic disease
Patients

Hospitalized patients
with chronic
inflammatory
conditions (e.g.
osteomyelitis, lung
abscess, RA, breast
cancer, lung cancer)

11

Anemia of chronic disease
Unique Features

States of chronic inflammation
suppress erythropoiesis,
increased iron stores in bone marrow, increased serum ferritin, reduced iron-binding capacity (rule out IDA)

12

Anemia of chronic disease
Prognosis

Mild anemia is the most frequent manifestation, but treatment of the
underlying cause of inflammation is
most important, underlying condition may impact survival (e.g.
cancer), most patients respond well to iron and EPO supplementation

13

Aplastic anemia
Pathologic Cells

RBC, reduced
production

14

Aplastic anemia
Patients

Anyone may succumb to this condition, since it is
most frequently idiopathic, but it
may also develop as an adverse drug reaction or toxic exposure to benzene

15

Aplastic anemia
Unique Features

Bone marrow becomes
hypocellular and 90% of
marrow fills with yellow
marrow (fat), T cells are found within the bone marrow, reticulocytopenia in peripheral blood

16

Aplastic anemia
Prognosis

Anemia is slowly progressive with weakness, pallor, dyspnea, thrombocytopenia causing petechiae, and granulocytopenia causing infection risk, prognosis is
unpredictable

17

Myelopthisic anemia
Pathologic Cells

RBC, reduced
production

18

Myelopthisic anemia
Patients

Patients cancer
mets: breast, lung,
prostate; patients
with chronic granulomatous
disease (e.g. TB)

19

Myelopthisic anemia
Unique Features

Bone marrow is infiltrated, dacrocytes in peripheral blood,

20

Myelopthisic anemia
Prognosis

Anemia is mild, but treatment of the underlying cause of marrow infiltration is most important (e.g.
breast cancer, TB)