Chapter 11- Polycythemia & Reactive Leukocytosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11- Polycythemia & Reactive Leukocytosis Deck (16)
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1

Relative polycythemia
(2° to dehydration)

Pathologic Cells

RBCs, increased
concentration

2

Relative polycythemia
(2° to dehydration)

Patients

Anyone with an
illness (vomiting or
diarrhea) or uses
diuretics are at risk

3

Relative polycythemia
(2° to dehydration)

Unique Features

Result of reduced fluid (serum) of the blood, which causes a relative increase in % of RBCs per volume

4

Relative polycythemia
(2° to dehydration)

Prognosis

No impact of lifespan as long as they don’t die of hypovolemic shock (severe dehydration)

5

Absolute polycythemia
a) Polycythemia vera (PCV)
b) Elevated EPO

Pathologic Cells

RBCs, increased
production

6

Absolute polycythemia
a) Polycythemia vera (PCV)
b) Elevated EPO

Patients

Patients with JAK2
mutations develop
PCV

Elevated EPO
may be form of a medication or from
hypoxia (↑ altitude)

7

Absolute polycythemia
a) Polycythemia vera (PCV)
b) Elevated EPO

Unique Features

Itching skin or risk for 30% have thrombotic
complications: stroke, M.I., organ infarction (spleen, kidneys)

8

Absolute polycythemia
a) Polycythemia vera (PCV)
b) Elevated EPO

Prognosis

PCV: low levels of EPO, patients live 1.5-3 years without medical management, but are expected to live 10-20 years after diagnosis with management.

9

Infectious mononucleosis
Pathologic Cells

B cells are infected with Epstein-Barr
virus (EBV)

10

Infectious mononucleosis
Patients

Developed:
adolescence/young
adulthood

Developing: early childhood

11

Infectious mononucleosis
Unique Features

“Atypical lymphocytes” are CD8+ T cells that are formed to attack the EBV-infected B cells and are found in peripheral circulation, fever, pharyngitis, generalized lymphadenitis, lymphocytosis
(12,000 – 18,000 cells/ µL), splenomegaly,

Dx. via monospot test, Transmitted via saliva (kiss)

12

Infectious mononucleosis
Prognosis

Self-limiting within 4-6 weeks without Tx

13

Cat-scratch disease
Pathologic Cells

Bartonella henselae is
introduced to the skin (eventually to lymphatics)

14

Cat-scratch disease
Patients

90% are pediatrics,
frequently with a history of a cat scratch or thorn/splinter

15

Cat-scratch disease
Unique Features

Lymphadenitis (axillary &
cervical nodes),
~2 weeks post infection, granuloma formation
(“irregular stellate necrotizing granulomas”)

16

Cat-scratch disease
Prognosis

Self-limiting within 8-16 weeks without Tx., antibiotics may be
used in immunosuppressed
patients