Flashcards in Chapter 11: Managing Knowledge Deck (44)
Uses machines to make solid objects, layer by layer, from specifications in a digital file. Also known as additive manufacturing.
Modeling complex phenomena as systems of autonomous agents that follow relatively simple rules for interaction.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
The effort to develop computer-based systems that can behave like humans, with the ability to learn languages, accomplish physical tasks, use a perceptual apparatus, and emulate human expertise and decision making.
Augmented Reality (AR)
A technology for enhancing visualization. Provides a live direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment whose elements are augmented by virtual computer-generated imagery.
A strategy for searching the rule base in an expert system that acts like a problem solver by beginning with a hypothesis and seeking out more information until the hypothesis is either proved or disproved.
Case-Based Reasoning (CBR)
Artificial intelligence technology that represents knowledge as a database of cases and solutions.
Communities of Practice (COPs)
Informal social networks of professionals and employees within and outside the firm who have similar work-related activities and interests and share their knowledge.
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Information system that automates the creation and revision of designs using sophisticated graphics software.
Streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use.
Digital Asset Management Systems
Classify, store, and distribute digital objects such as photographs, graphic images, video, and audio content.
Enterprise Content Management Systems
Help organizations manage structured and semistructured knowledge, providing corporate repositories of documents, reports, presentations, and best practices and capabilities for collecting and organizing e-mail and graphic objects.
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
General purpose, firmwide systems that collect, store, distribute, and apply digital content and knowledge.
Knowledge-intensive computer program that captures the expertise of a human in limited domains of knowledge.
Knowledge that has been documented.
User-created taxonomies for classifying and sharing information.
A strategy for searching the rule base in an expert system that begins with the information entered by the user and searches the rule base to arrive at a conclusion.
Rule-based AI that tolerates imprecision by using nonspecific terms called membership functions to solve problems.
Problem-solving methods that promote the evolution of solutions to specified problems using the model of living organisms adapting to their environment.
Hybrid AI Systems
Integration of multiple AI technologies into a single application to take advantage of the best features of these technologies.
The strategy used to search through the rule base in an expert system; can be forward or backward chaining.
Software program that uses a built-in or learned knowledge base to carry out specific, repetitive, and predictable tasks for an individual user, business process, or software application.
Technologies that aid human decision makers by capturing individual and collective knowledge, discovering patterns and behaviors in large quantities of data, and generating solutions to problems that are too large and complex for human beings to solve on their own.
Powerful desktop computer for financial specialists, which is optimized to access and manipulate massive amounts of financial data.
Concepts, experience, and insight that provide a framework for creating, evaluating, and using information.
Model of human knowledge that is used by expert systems.
Identification of novel and valuable patterns in large databases.
The set of processes developed in an organization to create, gather, store, maintain, and disseminate the firm's knowledge.
Knowledge Network Systems
Online directory for locating corporate experts in well-defined knowledge domains.
Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)
Information systems that aid knowledge workers in the creation and integration of new knowledge into the organization.