Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems Deck (40)
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1

Accountability

The mechanisms for assessing responsibility for decisions made and actions taken.

2

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

Type of RSI in which pressure on the median nerve through the wrist's bony carpal tunnel structure produces pain.

3

Computer Abuse

The commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical.

4

Computer Crime

The commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system.

5

Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)

Eyestrain condition related to computer display screen use; symptoms include headaches, blurred vision, and dry and irritated eyes.

6

Cookies

Tiny file deposited on a computer hard drive when an individual visits certain Web sites. Used to identify the visitor and track visits to the Web site.

7

Copyright

A statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property against copying by others for any purpose for a minimum of 70 years.

8

Descartes' Rules of Change

A principle that states that if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.

9

Digital Divide

Large disparities in access to computers and the Internet among different social groups and different locations.

10

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

Adjusts copyright laws to the Internet Age by making it illegal to make, distribute, or use devices that circumvent technology-based protections of copy-righted materials.

11

Due Process

A process in which laws are well-known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that laws are applied correctly.

12

Ethical "No Free Lunch" Rule

Assumption that all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone else, unless there is a specific declaration otherwise, and that the creator wants compensation for this work.

13

Ethics

Principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting as free moral agents to make choices to guide their behavior.

14

Fair Information Practices (FIP)

A set of principles originally set forth in 1973 that governs the collection and use of information about individuals and forms the basis of most U.S. and European privacy laws.

15

Golden Rule

Putting oneself in the place of others as the object of a decision.

16

Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative

A principle that states that if an action is not right for everyone to take it is not right for anyone.

17

Information Rights

The rights that individuals and organizations have with respect to information that pertains to themselves.

18

Informed Consent

Consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision.

19

Intellectual Property

Intangible property created by individuals or corporations that subject to protections under trade secret, copyright, and patent law.

20

Liability

The existence of laws that permit individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations.

21

Nonobvious Relationship Awareness (NORA)

Technology that can find obscure hidden connections between people or other entities by analyzing information from many different sources to correlate relationships.

22

Opt-Int

Model of informed consent permitting prohibiting an organization from collecting any personal information unless the individual specifically takes action to approve information collection and use.

23

Opt-Out

Model of informed consent permitting the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected.

24

Patent

A legal document that grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind invention for 17 years; designed to to ensure that investors of new machines or methods are rewarded for their labor while making widespread use of their inventions.

25

Privacy

The claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or the state.

26

Profiling

The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals.

27

Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI)

Occupational disease that occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions with high-impact loads or thousands of repetitions with low-impact loads.

28

Responsibility

Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions one makes.

29

Risk Aversion Principle

Principle that one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.

30

Safe Harbor

Private self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulations but does not involve government regulation or enforcement.