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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (60):

Teaching __________is the single most empowering thing that we can do for individuals who require AAC

literacy skills


Literacy Skills

• Without literacy skills, individuals must rely on others to provide graphic or other symbols to represent the language concepts they wish to express
• Literacy skills
o enhance others’ perceptions of the individual’s competence
o Increase individual’s self-esteem
o Reduces opportunity barriers


“Good” Readers…

• Recognize letters and letter sequences automatically
• Recognize sound patterns, manipulate sounds easily, and map sounds to letters (and vice versa) rapidly
• Are able to access word meanings quickly
• Are able to integrate these skills with ease to derive meaning from the text or to encode meaning into text


If I can…

• If I can read aloud the words, am I a reader?
• If I can understand the words, am I a reader?


Intrinsic Factors that Affect Literacy Learning

• Visual impairments
• Hearing impairments
• Motor impairments
• Cognitive impairments
• Language impairments
• Speech impairments
• Lack of experiences and world knowledge
• Lack of motivation


Extrinsic Factors that Affect Literacy Learning

• Physical context – amount and nature of literacy materials
• Functional context – time and organization of literacy activities within the day
• Social context – quality of interaction with literate partners during literacy experiences
• Language context – the language available/used during literacy activities
• Cultural context – value, expectations, and priority accorded to literacy learning by the family, school, and community


Instructional Factors that Affect Literacy Learning

• There is a lack of evidence-based literacy interventions adapted to meet the need of individuals with limited/no speech
• New attention has been put on the development of literacy skills in those with CCN
o Emergent literacy skills
o Basic conventional reading and writing
o Advanced literacy skills


Fostering Emergent Literacy Skills

• Stage of emergent literacy – early years of literacy development prior to learning conventional literacy skills
• Acquire knowledge and skills that form foundation
o Build language skills
o Connect spoken and written language
o Learn conventions of print
• Storybook reading


**Challenges in Emergent Literacy Development for Those Who Rely on AAC

• Choosing storybook (may not be rereading)
• Readers provide fewer pauses
• Readers seldom ask questions
• Lack of access to AAC during reading


Intervention to Promote Development of Emergent Literacy Skills
• Focus on:

o Providing the individual with access to AAC
o Teaching partners to use interaction strategies that promote effective communication by individual relying on AAC


Providing Access to AAC

• Provide manual sign/gestures
• Use objects
• Provide simple switches
• Provide low-tech communication boards
• Provide SGDs


Teaching Interaction Strategies to Literate Partners

• Create opportunities to participate then support the interaction
• Page 318, Table 12.1(next slide)
• May use magazines or books of high interest for adults who are not yet literate


**Strategies to Encourage Partner Interaction

• Select appropriate books
• Introduce the topic of the book
• Introduce new vocab as required
• Read the text of the book
• Use time delay
• Ask appropriate questions
• Model use of AAC and speech (language modeling)
• Respond to communicative attempts
• Encourage the learner to tell the story


Providing Independent Access to Reading Materials

• Location of books/reading materials
• Provide ability to request books
• Adapt books
• Label environment
• Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM)


Building Narrative Skills

• Book reading fosters these skills
• Use color coded, tangible supports
• Soto and colleagues used an intervention targeting understanding and use of story structures…Page 319


Building Emergent Writing Skills

• May need adapted tools
• May need computer access
• Examples of practice:
o Drawing pictures
o Writing letters, emails
o Labeling
o Making signs
o Designing cards


AT for Computer Access

• Input
o Direct selection aids
o Switches and switch interfaces
o Adapted keyboards
o Alternative mice
o Voice recognition software
• Display Output
o Screen magnifiers
o Screen readers


AT for Writing

• Post-it note
• Highlighter
• Pencil grip
• Slant board
• Dry erase board
• Tape Recorder
• Portable word processor
o Computer/Tablet with:
• Word processor
• Spell & grammar check
• Talking word processor
• Word prediction
• Scanner and software to read out loud
• Software with graphic organizers/outlines


AT for Reading

• Open and display digital books
• Read text aloud
• Highlight words, sentences
• Add bookmarks
• Customizable fonts, colors, backgrounds
• Work with multiple document file types
• Read text in web pages


Introducing Phonological Awareness and Letter-Sound Correspondences

• Through
• Preschool/child care programs
• Educational software
• TV shows


Key Components of Intervention to Teach Conventional Literacy Skills

• Intervention must:
o Allocate sufficient time for instruction
o Use appropriate and effective instructional techniques
o Provide adaptations as appropriate to ensure participation
o Build positive rapport and ensure student motivation
• Monitor progress and adjust as required


Allocating Sufficient Time for Instruction

• Grades 1-3: at least 90 minutes/day
• Students at risk: between 130-150 minutes/day
• Students who use AAC: maybe even more


Implementing Effective Instructional Techniques to Teach Key Skills

• Most effective instruction combines direct instruction in key skills and numerous opportunities to apply them
• Key literacy skills are listed on Page 323 in Table 12.2


Direct Instruction

• Instructor models target skill
• Instructor provides guided practice, including prompts
• Learner does the skill during independent practice
• Instructor provides corrective feedback throughout


Providing Adaptations for Individuals with CCN

• To Accommodate Speech Impairments – Accept/Encourage/Teach alternative responses like manual signs, approximations, AAC symbols, letters, words
• To Accommodate Motor Impairments – May require alternative access to content like eye pointing, scanning, partner-assisted scanning
• To Accommodate Sensory/Perceptual Impairments – See slide: AT for Reading


AT for Vision

• Increase lighting/higher contrast
• Enlarge/magnify
• Add sound or speech
• Use tactile labels/output


AT for Hearing

• Clear visual display
• Volume control
• Vibration alert
• Visual signal


Building Positive Rapport and Ensuring Student Motivation

• The support and encouragement of adults who believed in their ability to learn was fundamental to their successful acquisition of reading and writing skills
• Believe the student can be successful and communicate that to them.
• Incorporate the person’s interests into the literacy activities


Monitoring Effectiveness of Intervention

• Assess to determine progress, if instructional techniques are working, and where to go from here
• Page 328, Table 12.4 shows potential causes of and solutions for instructional difficulties while teaching literacy skills


Intervention to Teach Basic Reading Skills

• Target in Order:
o Phonological awareness skills and letter-sound correspondences
o Decoding and sight word recognition skills, and application of these skills
o Independent reading of simple texts and reading comprehension skills


Phonological Awareness Skills

• Individual’s understanding and awareness of the sound structure of language
o Rhyming
o Segmenting words into component sounds
o Blending sounds to form words
o Determining beginning, middle, or final sounds in words
• Individual’s with CCN CAN acquire phonological awareness skills
• Most individuals with severe speech impairments do have deficits in these skills


Instruction in Sound Blending

• Instructor says a word slowly, extending each phoneme for 1-2 seconds
• Learner blends the sounds in his or her head
• Determines target word
• Responds by signing, speech approximation, or selecting an AAC symbol


Instruction in Phoneme Segmentation

• If a learner has already acquired letter-sound correspondences:
• Instructor says the word out loud
• Learner listens then segments out the target sound
• Selects the letter that represents it from a keyboard or array of letters


Instruction in Phoneme Segmentation

• If learner has not yet acquired letter-sound correspondences
• Instructor presents an array of AAC symbols all starting with different sounds
• Instructor says the initial sound of one of the symbols
• The learner segments the initial sound of each of the symbols subvocally or “in his/her head”
• Learner selects symbol whose initial sound matches the target


Adapted Sound Blending Activity

• Some learners may benefit from the use of printed letters as visual supports
• Instructor points to each letter in a sequence and says its sound slowly, extending each phoneme for 1-2 seconds
• Learner blends the sounds and indicates the target word


Letter-Sound Correspondences

• Instructor says a phoneme or sound
• Learner selects the letter corresponding to this sound from an array of letters/keyboard
• Individuals of various ages who have a wide range of disabilities and rely on various types of AAC can successfully acquire letter-sound correspondences
• Length of time required to acquire letter sounds varies
• Learners may benefit from introducing the sounds incrementally (one at a time)


Letter-Sound Correspondences

• May teach in the following order:
• a m t p o n c d u s g h I f b l e r w k x v y z j q
• Lowercase are taught first
• Letters and sounds that occur more frequently in children’s books are taught first
• Letters and sounds that are similar visually and/or aurally are separated in the instructional sequence
• Short vowels are taught before long vowels
• Single letter-sound correspondences are taught before consonant clusters
• May focus only on the letter sounds and not their names initially



• Choose a word that a beginning reader might be able to decode based on the information on the last slide.
• Make it CVC
• Create a slide, drawing, etc. with the target word/sound and three other foils to help me learn phoneme segmentation or sound blending.
• Raise your hand when you’ve finished.


Decoding Skills

• Once an individual has acquired sound-blending skills and knows some letter-sound correspondences, he/she has the skills to learn to decode written words
• Curriculum that incorporates phonological awareness and decoding has shown to be more effective than the traditional sight word approach
• To decode:
o Learner “looks” at the letters in a sequence
o Recalls the sound of each letter
o Blends them together (may be subvocally)
o Determines target word (indicates via sign, vocalization, selecting a symbol)


Sight Word Recognition Skills

• Pair instruction of sight words with phonological awareness and decoding instruction
• Use direct instruction to teach sight words, include prompting, prompt fading, and repeated opportunities to practice
• Individual learns to match the target written word to a picture, photo, or other AAC symbol when possible (exceptions: the, there, etc. teach in direct association with spoken word)


Application of Decoding and Sight Word Recognition Skills During Shared Reading

• As soon as the individual knows a few words in isolation, he/she should have the opportunity to apply his/her skills during book reading
• Literate partner reads story and pauses on target words
• Learner may use speech approximation, sign, or symbol


Reading and Understanding Simple Sentences and Stories

• Once an individual can reliably and fluently decode and/or recognize by sight a range of words, they can start reading sentences and stories independently.
• Requires learner to:
o Track through the words from left to right
o Decode/recognize by “sight” each word in the sentence
o Recall the meaning of each word
o Process the words together to derive the meaning
• Must also be able to relate information to prior knowledge
• Start with understanding basic literal comprehension skills then move towards teaching inferential skills


Teaching to Read and Understand Simple Sentences

• Instructor presents 3 or more photos, pics, or illustrations from a story. The pictures include one that illustrates the meaning of the written sentence, and the others are foils.
• Learner reads the sentence independently
• Learner selects the picture that represents its complete meaning


Activity Instructions

• Pair up
• Choose a book that interests you
• Now give that book to your partner
• Look through your book and write down 5-10 words in it that can also be found on the AAC system
• Think of 5 questions that you can ask your partner while you read that would allow her to point/select a word or phrase from the AAC system as their answer
• Read through the book with your partner while using Language Modeling and ask your questions (remember to pause)
• Encourage your partner to retell you the story using the AAC system
• Switch roles


Interventions to Teach Basic Writing Skills

• This process is more complicated than learning to read.
• Intervention requires:
o Access to appropriate “writing” tools
o Appropriate and effective instruction


Access to Writing Tools

• Pencils and markers with adaptations
• Keyboard access
• Letter cards/word wall/word bank (Literacy Suites)
o What about writing in symbols?
o Low tech -->PRC


Instruction and Opportunities to Use Basic Writing Skills

• Instruction should include:
o Direct instruction
o Numerous opportunities to apply skills
• Once students have acquired phoneme segmentation skills and know some letter-sound correspondences, instruction can include:
o Instructor models single-word encoding by saying a word slowly aloud, extending each sound, and selecting the letters for each sound as it is said
o Instructor provides guided practice: says word while student selects each letter as they correspond
o Instructor gradually fades oral scaffolding support
o Student develops competence with practice
o Instructor provides feedback as appropriate


Employ Techniques that Reduce Some of the Demands on the Learner

• Read books with repeated lines and have students use the repeated lines to create their own stories:
• Red pig, red pig, what do you see?
• Use highly motivating photos as a basis for writing, use prompts for beginning, middle, end (color coded, tangible)
• Provide students with words
• Word bank/wall
• Shared writing wherein instructor and student co-construct the story
• Word Prediction?


Teaching Advanced Literacy Skills

• Focus changes from learning to read/write to reading and writing to learn


Building Fluency in Basic Reading Skills

• Repeated readings of texts at independent reading level
• Reading along with audio recordings/highlighting (Read2Go)
• Paired readings, read with a partner


Building More Advanced Language Skills

• Reading books to/with learners
• Teach specific vocabulary, sentence structures, or genres as required
• Developing world knowledge and domain specific knowledge
o Read a wide range of books
o Audiobooks, multimedia presentations, screen readers
o Go on field trips, sonic, road signs


Benefit from Instruction in Reading Comprehension Strategies

• Page 343, Table 12.6 shows strategies to support reading comprehension and adaptations for students with CCN
• Page 344 lists model to teach reading comprehension strategies


Building Knowledge and Skills in Writing Conventions

• Need to develop skills in:
• Spelling – benefit from explicit instruction and auditory feedback
• Writing conventions
o Capitalization
o Punctuation
o Paragraphing
• Fluency with writing conventions
o Spelling skills
o Punctuation
o Handwriting
o Keyboarding


Learning to Use Writing Strategies

• Use writing strategies – provide the multistep procedures to support each stage of the writing process
• Use collaborative writing – involves the development of “instructional arrangements whereby students work together to plan, draft,” and revise



• Pay attention to the writing prompt
• List main ideas
• Add supporting ideas
• Number your ideas

• Work from your plan/develop thesis
• Remember your goals
• Include transition words for paragraphs
• Try to use different kinds of sentences
• Exciting, interesting $10,000 word

• Enter your first draft
• Do a spell check
• Interrogate yourself about capitals, punctuation, etc.
• Type in corrections/spell checker



1. Provision of AT (SGD, graphic organizers, storyboards, software)
2. Explicit instruction in writing strategies
3. Modeling of writing by the instructor and the peer
4. Prompting
5. Written support provided by peer scaffolding


Building Writing Skills for Social Purposes

• Texting and social networking allows communication at a person’s own rate and does not involve speech
• May need to learn the “lingo” – lol


AT to Support Literacy

• For communication
o Support written (conventional, emergent writing), telecommunication (texting, emailing), and face-to-face communication (choosing topics, talking about books, answering & asking questions, summarizing stories, expressing opinions)
• For instruction
o For delivery of computer assisted instruction/supports


AT to Support Literacy

• To provide support for reading and writing difficulties
o Spell checkers
o Onscreen dictionaries
o Word prediction
o Software with graphic organizers (and the above supports)
o Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM)
• Font, TTS, definitions, links, electronic coaching


5 Key Components to Effective Literacy Intervention

1. Providing sufficient time for literacy instruction
2. Targeting appropriate skills known to improve literacy outcomes
3. Using proven, effective instructional techniques
4. Providing appropriate instructional adaptations and supports
5. Building positive rapport and ensuring student motivation