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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (14):

Educational Inclusion of Students with CCN

• “Professionals must be committed to providing access to the general education curriculum for all student regardless of their needs and abilities” (Soto & Zangari, 2009, p. x)


In Oklahoma…

• NOTE: Only 2% of students should legally be allowed to participate in the Oklahoma Modified Alternate Assessment Program (OMAAP) as a modified format to the state-wide, standardized tests.
• In the 2012-2013 school year, we had 16% of students participating in the OMAAP.
• In the 2013-2014 school year, students who had previously taken the OMAAP were expected to take the same test as the peers in their grade.
• What do you think happened to our test scores?


Modifications vs Accommodations

• Modifications - Change an outcome
• Write the first sentence of each paragraph
• Accommodations - Same outcome as peers **Try this first
• Type/dictate the paper


Inclusive Education

• Refers to a number of practices and outcomes that take place primarily in a general education classroom that is populated by students in the same chronological age as the student with CCN
• 1st requires the student with CCN to be a member of the class
• 2nd requires that all students participate actively
• 3rd means that a student with CCN acquires skills that are meaningful and relevant across all academic areas
• No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110)
• Goals related to curriculum standards and functional skills are written in a student’s individualized education program (IEP)


Transition from Preschool to School

• Begin providing AAC services to children with CCN during preschool to avoid spending months/years assessing once they enter elementary school.
• Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (PL 108-446) mandates publicly funded preschool education
• Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (PL 93-112 provides the legal basis for AT supports including AAC)
• The goal should be that, by the time children who rely on AAC reach 1st grade, they have the tools necessary for academic participation and instruction.


Transition from Preschool to School

• Prior to the student starting school:
• May need to have visits to the school
• Educators, staff, and related service providers should be familiar with the AAC system
• The school AAC team should be up to speed with knowledge and skills required to facilitate communication efforts
• Following the transition:
• Educators, staff, and related service providers should observe student’s needs
• AAC system should not need to be changed (if student was well prepared)
• If not up to speed, the school AAC team should receive facilitator training


The Participation Model: Planning Classwide Accommodations

• Universal Design for Learning (UDL) - is a set of principles for curriculum development that give all individuals equal opportunities to learn.
• -
• What benefits the student with CCN may benefit the whole class
• Use of various types of instructional media supports all learners
• Allow students to respond in various ways
o May use yes/no or T/F methods OR find a way that the person with CCN can communicate these and have the other students use it to communicate as well


Instructional Arrangements

• Teacher-Led Whole-Class Instruction – Use strategies that benefit all learners (audio, visual, tactile, etc.) provide lessons/vocabulary to students before the unit/lesson
• Teacher-Led Small-Group Instruction – More opportunities to respond/share/ask questions; will need to be prepared ahead of time if student wants to use narratives
• Cooperative Learning Groups – involve peer conversational interactions and are less predictable; consider students’ ability to move around the classroom
1. Involve a common task or activity that is suitable for small group work
2. Emphasize cooperative behavior and positive interdependence
3. Include structures related to individual accountability


Instructional Arrangements

• One-to-One Instruction
o Can be delivered by adults or peers; typically question and answer; fairly predictable
• Self-Directed Seat Work
o Usually does not require interacting with others
o May need technology to help the students be more independent
o Adobe for fillable forms/worksheets
o Software for TTS/reading assignments


Teacher Expectations

• Silence vs speaking up
• Predictable questions vs discussion
• Individual responses vs group responses
• Answer formats vary


The Participation Model: Planning Student-Specific Accommodations

• Construct a student’s profile – use informal interviews and the Social Networks Inventory; answer questions on Page 367
• Develop an IEP – include academic, social, and cross-curricular goals; instructional and support strategies and criteria to determine if goals are met
• Plan lessons that include all students – use principles of UDL
• ID individualized accommodations as needed – Page 373 has examples of curriculum accommodations


Develop an IEP

• 1. ID priority goal areas
• 2. In each curriculum area ID at least one grade-level general education standard to address (Oklahoma Academic Standards)
• 3. ID classroom settings/activities where goal will be taught an evaluation criteria
• 4. Determine supports the student will need to achieve the goals
• Page 369 – Donnellan (1984) “principle of the least dangerous assumption”


UDL in the Classroom

1. To support recognition learning, teachers should provide multiple, flexible methods of presentation
2. To support strategic learning, teachers should provide multiple, flexible methods of expression and apprenticeship
3. To support affective learning, teachers should provide multiple, flexible methods for engagement


Implement Instruction and Evaluate Outcomes

• Ask 2 main questions
1. Was the student able to actively participate?
2. Did the student work on/meet IEP goals?