Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

AAC > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (31):

Beginning Communicators

Refers to any individual (regardless of age) who has one or more of the following characteristics

o Relies primarily on nonsymbolic modes (gestures, vocalizations, facial expressions, body language)
o Is learning to use aided or unaided symbols to represent basic messages for requesting, rejecting, sharing info, and engaging in social interactions
o Uses nonelectronic communication displays and/or simple switches or SGDs


Behavior is Communication!!

• Behaviors may include tantrums, hitting, screaming, pushing, self-injurious, climbing tables, dumping out toys, and the list goes on…..


3 Principles – Interventions for Problem Behaviors

1. Principle of functional equivalence

2. Principle of efficiency and response effectiveness

3. Principle of goodness-of-fit


1. Principle of functional equivalence

• Teaching an alternative behavior that serves the same function
• FBA to determine functions of the behaviors


2. Principle of efficiency and response effectiveness

• People communicate in the most effective manner available to them at any given point in time
• Alternative behavior must be at least as easy and effective


3. Principle of goodness-of-fit

• Sometimes the most appropriate response is to create a better fit between the person and his or her environment
• Usually requires altering relevant aspects of the environment based on the FBA
o Focus on changing the environment/sequence of events NOT the person


Participation Model

Intervention in natural contexts
• Kids- home, community
• School-age- classroom, playground
• Adults- home, work, community


Resolving Opportunity Barriers – “Young Children”

• 1st Norm-referenced assessments: not best practice for measuring abilities of people with CCN
• 2nd Build on “young children’s” strengths
• 3rd Believe least dangerous assumption


Intervention Goals – “Young Children”

• Development of natural speech should always be included in intervention
• Support development of literacy skills
• Assume general-education kindergarten placement is the goal
• Increase communication opportunities
o Teach specific communication and social interaction skills
• Create opportunities for them to communicate and capitalize on their abilities and opportunities


Early Intervention Services

• In Oklahoma our program is SoonerStart
o Collaboration between Oklahoma State Department of Education and Oklahoma Department of Health
• Services typically occur in the home
• Training parents/caregivers who then provide inputs and supports.
• At 3 children transition into the Local Education Agencies (LEAs) services
o Maybe Head Start or another preschool program
• Focus on inclusion
o Natural environment for therapy when they are 3


Communication Opportunities

• Increase meaningful participation in natural contexts that are conducive to communication
o Highly motivating
o Familiar
o Valued by child/family
o Should provide meaningful, sustained social and communicative interactions


Create Predictable Routines

Daily living routines
• Dressing
• Bathing
• Eating
• Toileting
o Child can start to anticipate occurrence of steps.


Adaptive Play

• Increase participation
• Remain play not work
• Select toys and play materials with interaction goals
o Blocks
o Balls
o Vehicles
o Puppets
o Switch toys
o Modify toys (easier to hold, carry, manipulate)


Resolving Opportunity Barriers – School-Age Individuals

• Inclusive education with appropriate supports greatly increases the likelihood that students with CCN will have more opportunities for natural communication with a variety of partners
o BUT we can’t stop here!
• We still have to create/capitalize on communication opportunities
• Inclusive education presents considerable challenges to those who provide classroom support.


Person-Centered Planning

• Process that enables people with disabilities and facilitators to
o Develop personal relationships
o Have positive roles in community life
o Increase control of their own lives
o Develop skills and abilities to achieve these goals


Vision Plan

• Gather information to develop a collective vision of the future
• Develop short and long term goals
• Make commitments of various types and levels to help execute the plan


PATH and Social Networks

• PATH – Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope
o 8-step planning process that brings people with CCN together with individuals in their social network
• Social Networks – help teams collect and interpret information to plan AAC interventions in inclusive settings (concentric circles on page 236)


Resolving Opportunity Barriers – Adolescents and Adults

• Teach skills in appropriate environments
• May use Person-Centered Planning
• Use “Ecological Inventory” process
o Observe peers participating
o List skills required
o Compare
o Design communication supports


The Bottom Line

• Availability of genuine and motivating communication opportunities in inclusive settings is at least as important to the success of intervention as is the availability of an appropriate access system.


Sensitizing and Training Facilitators

• Teaching them to identify and respond to nonsymbolic communication signals is important:
o 1st teaches individuals that their behavior is powerful
o 2nd prevents problem behaviors



• Nonsymbolic communication may begin unintentionally
• Someone acknowledges behavior and assigns meaning to it
• Communication partners help shape behaviors to be acceptable/efficient forms of communication


See indicators of Intentional Communicative Behaviors

Table 9.3


Strategies for Responding to and Expanding Nonsymbolic Communication

• Getting Attention
o Initiate social interactions
• Accepting
o Communicating tolerance, okay, enjoyable
• Rejecting
o Communicating intolerance, unacceptable, not enjoyable
• May be idiosyncratic: “peculiar/unique” to others


Teaching Attention-Seeking, Acceptance, and Rejection

• Respond to culturally/socially acceptable behaviors
• Determine intent
• Establish acceptable behaviors
• Start responding to new behaviors
• May include low-tech options


Relationship to Problem Behavior

• Functional Communication Training (FCT)
• Look for precursors to problem behaviors
• Teach functionally equivalent communication skills
o Use prompting and fading


Scripted Routines

• Provide structured opportunities to practice using signals
1. Touch cue
2. Verbal cue
3. Pause
4. Verbal feedback
5. Action
o Try not to make this too hard.


Gesture Dictionaries

• Beginning communicators gradually develop a repertoire of vocalizations and gestures for communication
• Many are idiosyncratic
• A gesture dictionary would describe the person’s gestures, along with meanings and maybe suggestions for appropriate responses.
• May need to be alphabetized


Joint Attention

• Ability to shift one’s attention between a communication partner and an object or another person
• When using an AAC system, hold in alignment with the direction of their eye gaze


Visual Schedules

• Also known as calendar system, schedule system, or activity schedule
• Represents main activities in a person’s day with symbols and may serve
o To introduce an individual to the idea that one thing can represent another
o To provide an overview of the sequence of activities across a day (time span)
o To facilitate smooth transitions
• Talking visual schedule available


Visual Schedules

• Can incorporate real objects, tangible symbols, photos, line drawings, and/or written words
• Can use PPT or other software
• Can use apps on tablets
• Talking photo album
• Use a hierarchy of prompts


Talking Switch Techniques

• Can introduce the use of symbols
• Provide limited-context communication using voice output
• Ideally voice should be the same age/gender as person using it
• Activate either direct or remote (switch)
• Single symbol (with text) attached and a relevant message should be recorded prior to use
• May employ step switches
• See Page 252 for examples of use