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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (28):

Selection Set

• Includes the visual, auditory, or tactile presentation of all messages, symbols, and codes that are available at one time to a person who relies on AAC
• Most AAC techniques utilize visual displays of items in the selection set


Types of Selection Sets
• Fixed (or static) displays

usually low tech


Types of Selection Sets
• Dynamic displays

when activated, change screen to show new set of symbols


Types of Selection Sets
• Hybrid displays

electronic fixed with dynamic component


Types of Selection Sets
• Visual Scene Display

– picture, photo, virtual environment depicting a situation, place, experience
o Can you use a VSD on a 7-level communicator?
• Yes, you can program visual scenes with a low tech device.
o How have companies compensated for the limited number of symbols or images available on a lower-tech device?
• They have created devices with levels. The super talked has 8 levels. 7-level communicator has 7 levels.


o Word prediction would fall into which category?

• Hybrid displays
 Questions from content on page 77



• You’ve already…
• Chosen messages (based on personal factors)
• Chosen symbolization or encoding strategies
o Now consider physical characteristics of selection set displays
• based on motor abilities


Physical Characteristics of Selection Set Displays

• Number of items (some have 6, some have 84)
• Size
o (2x2 or 1x1)
• Spacing and arrangement
o (space and where are words on the page?)
• Orientation of the display
o Which of these does your book say is most important?
• The number items that are shown


Number of Items

• Most important factor is the number of messages, symbols, codes, and commands that the individual requires


Size for visual displays

2 issues:
1. Individual item size – (for visual) determined by
o visual capabilities,
o motor access technique employed,
o type of symbol,
o number of items to be displayed
2. Overall display size – determined by
o number of items that must be displayed
o size of individual items
o spacing of items
o mounting and portability factors
o physical capabilities of the person using the AAC

• Will it be carried? Carrying case?
• Does the person use a wheelchair?


Size for Auditory and Tactile Displays

• Auditory Displays
o Determined by the individual’s memory and ability to retain the organizational scheme of the display

• Tactile Displays
o Depends on tactile recognition capabilities


Spacing and Arrangement of Items

• Determined by
o Visual capabilities
o Motor control capabilities



• Position of the display relative to the floor
• Determined by
o Postural capabilities
o Visual capabilities
o Motor capabilities

• If scanning, determined by
o Visual factors
o Postural factors


Selection Techniques

• Direct Selection
• Scanning


Direct Selection Options

• Physical contact - touch
• Physical pressure or depression – keyboards, headstick, pencil/stylus
• Pointing (no contact) – eye pointing, tracking, gazing, laser pointer, infrared
• Speech recognition – for those with mild/moderate distortion
o Some AAC systems support access options and others don’t.
o What about keyguards?
• Overlay on keyboard. Funnels motor movement to correct key.


Direct Selection Activations Strategies

• Timed activation – dwell time
o have to touch the button a set amount of time to activate it
• Release activation – maintain direct contact
o hand on the wrong button- move to the correct one and then let go to activate the right one
• Filtered or averaged activation


Scanning Patterns

• Circular scanning – least complicated
o Dial scanner- circle with 4 options, hit switch when blade gets to the option you want
• Linear scanning – passes over every option
• Group-item scanning – ex. Row-column scanning (can make own groups)
o #1 reason for choosing scanning over direct selection?
• physical abilities or disabilities
• being unable to directly select because of a physical impairment is the main reason why a person has to scan
• it should be easier to do direct selection because it is on their own time versus whether working under a timed environment in scanning
• find the way a person can directly select first→ toes, knuckles, head pointer, etc.…
• If not, then go to scanning



• Scanning timing and speed
• Selection Control techniques
o Directed (inverse) scanning – activate switch until desired selection then quit activation
• let go when hear the desired one
o Automatic (regular or interrupted scanning) – activate switch to start scanning then activate switch to stop scanning
• hit switch to start, hit switch to stop
o Step scanning – only moves through selections if switch is activated, then either pause or use another switch to choose selection
• only goes to next one when you hit switch



• Provided during message construction
• Purposes:
1. Activation feedback
o Let the individual using AAC know that an item has been selected – click, ding, beep…
2. Message feedback
o Provide the individual with information about the message that has been formulated or selected
• Available through auditory, visual, tactile, or proprioceptive modalities


Message Output

• Refers to the information that users of AAC send to their communication partners
o Voice (audio) output
o Synthesized
• A synthetic voice. Text speech, computer voice.
o Digitized
• A recorded voice played back.
• Visual output
o Hard copy
o Computer screen messages
o Unaided symbols
o Aided symbol displays
• Voice banking
o Save voice by recording it saying different things and can use that in a device later. Used commonly with ALS.
o There are websites for voice banking


Message Input

• Refers to the information that users of AAC receive from others
o Visual input
o Unaided symbols
o Aided symbols
• aided language stimulation
• System for Augmenting Language
 clinician uses AAC device as well as client (both use LAMP, helps in proficiency for client)


Synthesized Speech vs Digital Speech

• Synthesized
o Computer generated

• Digitized
o Natural speech that has been recorded


Visual Output

• To supplement synthetic speech
• To write letters
• To complete assignments
• To leave notes
• To make lists
• To keep a personal journal


Hard Copy

• Printer for output on paper


Computer Screen Messages

• For feedback and output
• Manages orthographic and specialized symbols


Unaided Symbols

• Gestures
• Manual signs
• Demands on memory
• Intelligibility


Aided Symbol Displays

• Communication partners interact with the symbol set itself
• Written translations
• Synthetic speech output


Visual Input

• Appears to facilitate receptive language comprehension for some
• Unaided Symbols
o Gestures and signs (pointing)
• Aided Symbols
o Draw pictures
o Write letters/words
o Aided language stimulation
o System for Augmenting Language