Flashcards in Chapter 12 and 13 Deck (73):
When harmful substances build up in the air to unhealthy levels, the result is _______ .
Most air pollution is the result of _______ activities, but pollution can also come from natural sources.
A pollutant that is put directly into the air by human activity is called a _______ pollutant.
_______ pollutants form when primary pollutants react with other primary pollutants, or with naturally occurring substances such as water vapor.
Ground level _______ is an example of a secondary pollutant.
Primary air pollutants include _______ , _______ , _______ dioxide , volatile _______ compounds , and _______ matter.
volatile organic compounds
Air pollution is _______ a new phenomena.
The world air-quality problem is much worse today because modern industrial societies burn a large amount of _______ fuels.
Almost _______ of air pollution comes from gasoline burned by vehicles.
The EPA estimates that cars and trucks today burn fuel _______ % more efficiently and with _______ % fewer emissions than they did 30 years ago.
ZEVs have _______ tailpipe emissions.
_______ powered vehicles are the only ZEVs at this time.
Hybrid and methanol fuel cell vehicles are the only _______ ZEVs at this time.
_______ stands for volatile organic compounds.
A _______ is a machine that moves gases through a spray of water that dissolves many pollutants.
Electrostatic precipitators are machines that remove _______ particles from smokestacks.
_______ can be defined as smoke mixing with fog.
Sometimes, pollution is trapped near the ground due to a temperature _______ .
A temperature inversion occurs when the air higher up in the atmosphere is _______ than the air at or near the surface of the Earth.
There are both _______ term and _______ term effects of air pollution.
Air pollution can also occur _______ of buildings.
Buildings that have very poor air quality are said to have a condition known as _______ -_______ syndrome.
_______ gas and _______ are carcinogens that may be present in some buildings.
Unwanted sound is _______ pollution, and can damage our hearing by destroying cells in our ears.
The intensity of sound is measured in _______ , which is abbreviated dB.
What are 3 sources of light pollution in a city? _______ , _______ , and _______ .
billboards/ other signs lit from below
the lighting of building exteriors
poor-quality street lights
_______ precipitation is precipitation such as rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acids.
When fossil fuels are burned, they release oxides of _______ and _______ . When the oxides combine with water in the atmosphere, they form sulfuric acid and
nitric acid, which fall as acid precipitation.
Acid precipitation can _______ living things, and can result in the decline or loss of some local animal and plant populations.
A pH (power of hydrogen) number is a measure of how _______ or _______ a substance is.
The lower the pH number is, the more _______ a substance is; the higher a pH number is, the more _______ a substance is.
Pure water has a pH of 7_______ . Normal precipitation is slightly acidic, because atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolves into the precipitation and forms carbonic acid.
Acid precipitation can cause a drop in the pH of soil and water. This increase in the concentration of acid is called _______ . Increased acidity causes aluminum and other toxic metals to be released and possibly absorbed by the roots of plants.
Aquatic animals are _______ to live in an environment with a particular pH range.
Some of the world’s most important monuments are being dissolved by acid precipitation. These monuments include the _______ in Greece, the _______ in India, ancient temples and pyramids in _______ and in the rain forests of _______ America, and the _______ Memorial in Washington, DC.
One problem in controlling acid precipitation is that pollutants may be released in one area and fall to the ground _______ of kilometers away.
Almost half of the acid precipitation that falls in southeastern Canada results from pollution produced in the northeastern _______ .
Acid precipitation is an _______ problem.
_______ is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place at a particular moment.
_______ is the long-term prevailing weather conditions at a particular place based upon records taken.
Climate is determined by a variety of factors. These factors include _______ , _______ , _______ , the local geography of an area, solar activity, and _______ activity.
atmospheric circulation patterns
oceanic circulation patterns
The most important of these factors is _______ from the _______ .
Latitude influences climate because the amount of _______ energy an area of Earth receives depends on its latitude.
More solar energy falls on areas that are near the equator than on areas that are _______ .
closer to the poles
Three important properties of air illustrate how air circulation affects climate. First, _______ air sinks because it is denser than _______ air. As cold air sinks, it _______ and _______ . Second, warm air _______ . It _______ and _______ at it rises. Third, warm air can hold more _______ than cold air can. Therefore, when warm air cools, the water vapor it contains may condense into liquid water to form rain, snow, or fog.
Winds that blow predominantly in one direction throughout the year are called _______ winds.
These winds are deflected to the right in the _______ Hemisphere. They are deflected to the left in the _______ Hemisphere.
Belts of prevailing winds blow most of the time in both hemispheres between 30° north and south latitudes and the equator. These belts of wind are called the _______ winds.
Prevailing winds known as the _______ are produced between 30° and 60° north latitudes and 30°and 60° south latitudes.
Ocean currents have a great effect on climate because water holds large amounts of _______ .
El Niño is the name given to the short-term (generally 6- to 18-month), periodic change in the location of _______ and _______ water masses in the Pacific Ocean.
During an _______ , winds in the western Pacific Ocean, which are usually weak, strengthen and push warm water eastward. Rainfall follows this warm water eastward and produces increased rainfall in the southern half of the United States and in equatorial South America. El Niño causes drought in Indonesia and Australia.
During _______ , on the other hand, the water in the eastern Pacific Ocean is cooler than usual.
El Niño and La Niña are _______ phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. El Niño is the warm phase of the cycle, and La Niña is the cold phase.
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a long-term, _______ - to _______ - year change in the location of warm and cold water masses in the Pacific Ocean. PDO influences the climate in the northern Pacific Ocean and North America. It affects ocean surface temperatures, air temperatures, and precipitation patterns.
_______ and _______ ranges also influence the distribution of precipitation.
Both the _______ and _______ influence Earth’s climate. At a solar maximum, shown in Figure 8, the sun emits an increased amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV radiation produces more ozone, warming the stratosphere. The increased radiation can also warm the lower atmosphere and surface of the Earth a little.
In large-scale volcanic eruptions, _______ dioxide gas can reach the upper atmosphere. The sulfur dioxide gas reacts with smaller amounts of water vapor and dust in the stratosphere. This reaction forms a bright layer of haze that reflects enough sunlight to cause the global temperature to decrease.
The seasons result from the tilt of Earth’s axis (about _______ ° relative to the plane of its orbit).
Because of this tilt, the angle at which the sun’s rays strike the Earth _______ as the Earth moves around the sun.
The ozone layer is an area in the _______ where ozone is highly concentrated.
Ozone is a molecule made of _______ oxygen atoms.
At the Earth’s surface, _______ are chemically stable.
CFC molecules break apart high in the stratosphere, where UV radiation, a powerful energy source, is absorbed. Once CFC molecules break apart, parts of the CFC molecules _______ protective ozone.
Scientists have estimated that a single chlorine atom from CFC can destroy _______ ozone molecules.
As the amount of ozone in the stratosphere decreases, _______ ultraviolet light is able to pass through the atmosphere and reach Earth’s surface.
Many scientists think that because greenhouse gases trap heat near the Earth’s surface, more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will result in an _______ in global temperature.
The average temperature at Earth’s surface _______ during the twentieth century. Because the temperature is rising at a similar rate to the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, many scientists have hypothesized that the increase in greenhouse gases has caused the increase in temperature.
_______ of experiments and computer models support this hypothesis.
It is not possible to rule out _______ climatic variability. For example, we know that fluctuations in temperatures on Earth occur naturally over the centuries.
In 1997, representatives from 160 countries met and set timetables for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. These timetables will go into effect when a treaty called the _______ Protocol is ratified by 55 percent of the attending nations.
The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to decrease emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by an average of 5 percent below their 1990 levels by 2012. In March of 2001, the United States decided _______ to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Most developed nations are going ahead with the treaty.