Flashcards in Chapter 12-Behaviorism Deck (48)
Describe the four types of behavior and four methods for studying behavior that Watson proposed
Behavior: explicit or overt learned behavior such as talking, writing, and playing baseball; implicit or covert learned behavior such as the increased heart rate caused by the site of a dentist drill; explicit unlearned behavior such as grasping, blinking, and sneezing; and implicit unlearned behavior such as glandular secretions and circulatory changes
Methods for studying behavior: observation, either naturalistic or experimentally controlled; the conditional-reflex method, which Pavlov had proposed; testing, which meant the taking of behavior samples and not the measurement of capacity or personality; and verbal reports, which Watson treated as any other type of overt behavior
Describe Watsons views concerning language and thinking
The most controversial aspect of this theory. To be consistent in his behavioristic view, Watson had to reduce language and thinking to some form of behavior and nothing more: "saying is doing-that is, behaving. Speaking overtly or to ourselves is just as objective a type of behavior as baseball"
Speech was simply a type of overt behavior
Thinking is implicit or subvocal speech
Watsons belief that most, if not all, human behavior is caused by environmental experience
Describe Watson's conception of the role of instincts and learning and behavior
His view toward instincts changed radically over the years. In 1914 instincts played a prominent role in his theory. By 1919 Watson had taken the position that instincts are present in infants but that learned habits quickly displacement. In 1925 he completely rejected the idea of instincts and humans, contending that there are a few simple reflexes such a sneezing, crying, eliminating, crawling, sucking, and breathing but no complex, innate behavior patterns called instincts
Experience and not inheritance makes people what they are.
Said that if he was given a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and his own specified world to bring them up in he could guaranteed to take anyone at random and train him to become any type of specialist he might select such as a doctor, lawyer, artist, and even a thief.
Describe Watson's position on emotions
Believe that humans inherited the emotions of fear, rage, and love. Through learning, these emotions come to be elicited by stimuli other than those that originally elicited them. Furthermore, all adult emotions such as hate, pride, jealousy, and shame are derived from fear, rage, and love.
Describe Watson's experiments with Mary Cover Jones with little Albert and Peter
To demonstrate how emotions could be displaced to stimuli other than those that originally elicited the emotions, Watson and Rayner performed an experiment in 1920 on an 11-month-old infant named Albert. They showed Albert a white rat, and he expressed no fear of it. As Albert reached for the rat, a steel bar behind him was struck with a hammer which caused Albert to jump and fall forward. Again he was offered the rat and just as he touched it they would hit the steel bar again and he would jump and this time he began to cry. A week later, when the rat was again presented, Albert was less enthusiastic and attempted to keep his distance from it. Five more times they place the rat near him and struck the steel bar and Albert, who at first was attracted to the rat, was now frightened of it. His fear was just as strong five days later and had been generalized to other furry objects.
Peter and the rabbit: to see if fear could be eliminated in a person, they found a child, a three-year-old boy named Peter who was intensely frightened of white rabbits, rabbits, for coats, frogs, fish, and mechanical toys. The first showed him other children playing fearlessly with those objects and there was some improvement-a technique called modeling. Then they tried counterconditioning, he ate it in a lunch room 40 feet long and one day as he was eating lunch, a rabbit in a wire cage was displayed far enough away from him that he was not disturbed and each day they move the rabbit a bit closer until one day it was sitting beside him as he ate and finally he was able to eat with one hand and play with the rabbit with the other. This is one of the first examples of what we now call behavior therapy.
The use of learning principles in treating behavioral or emotional problems
Describe Watson's views on child rearing
His favorite topic was children. He wrote the psychological care of the infant and child with his wife Rosalie and it was extremely popular.
He advised adults to never hug and kiss children, never let them sit on your lap. If you must kiss them, then do it once on the four head when you say good night. Shake hands with them in the morning, give them a pat on the head if they have made an extraordinary good job of a difficult task. Mother love is a dangerous instrument, and instrument which may inflict a never healing wound.
Describe Watson's views on sex education
Children should be given frank, objective information about sex; and he often expressed his gratitude to Freud for breaking down the myth and secrecy surrounding sex.
Describe Watson's position with respect to behaviorism and the good life
Leave that psychology should be useful in every day life, and he often applied is behaviorism to himself and his children. He believed that it could make for a better life then traditional believes good
Describe Watson's view of the learning process
Instead of relying on Thorndike's law of effect, Watson explained learning in terms of the ancient principles of contiguity and frequency. Watching pointed out that in a learning situation, a trial always ends with the animal making the correct response. This means that the correct response tends to occur more frequently than incorrect responses and that the more often a response is made, the higher the probability that it will be made again-the law of frequency. It also means that the final response an organism makes in a learning situation will be the responsible tend to make when it is in the next situation, he called this the law of recency
Watsons observation that typically it is the correct response that terminates a learning trial and it is this final or most recent response that will be repeated when the organism is next placed in that learning situation
Law of recency
Describe Watson's position regarding the mind-body problem
At first he excepted consciousness as an epi-phenomenon, but later switch to a physical monist position. He denied the existence of the mind
Summarize Watson's influence on the development of psychology
Had to long-lasting effects: first, he changed psychology's major goal from the description and explanation of states of consciousness to the prediction and control of behavior. Second, he made overt behavior the almost-exclusive subject matter of psychology. His influence has been so pervasive that today most psychologists can be considered behaviorists
Pursued a type of behaviorism very different from Watsons. His behaviorism emphasized purposive and instinctive behavior
Debated with Watson, and after the debate, a vote showed McDougall to be the narrow Victor.
The version of behaviorism that claims only directly observable events, such as stimuli and responses, should constitute the subject matter of psychology. Explanations of behavior in terms of unobserved mental events can be, and should be avoided
The version of behaviorism that accepts The contention that overt behavior should be psychologies subject matter but is willing to speculate about internal causes of behavior, such as various mental and physiological states