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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (31):

What is the innervation for the diaphragm? 

phrenic nerve


What plexus does the phrenic nerve rise from? and what spinal nerves form this? 

phrenic plexus

Cervical spinal nerves 3-5 ("three four and five keep us alive") 


What innervates the neck muscles (ie scalenes)? 

cervical spinal nerves


What innervates the thoracic muscles and levator costarum? 

thoracic spinal nerves


What innervates muscles of the arm and shoulder: 

pectoralis major

pectoralis minor 

serratus anterior

What nerves form this? 

Nerves from the brachial plexus

Formed by spinal nerves C4-C7 and Throacic Nerve T1


What innervates teh Sternocleidomastoid? 

Crainial Nerve XI


What innervates the thoracic expiratory muscles? 

thoracic spinal nerves


what innervades the abdominal expiratory muscles? 

thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves 


What are volumes? 

discrete units that refer to the amount of air in a given space


partioning off the respiratoy system so that we may get an accurate estimate of the amount of air each compartment can hold


What are capacities? 

functional units that refer to a combination of volumes that express physiological limits


functional units that refer to combinations of voluemes that express physiological limits

measurment = mililiters or cubic centimeters 1 ml = 1cc


What is normal resting respiration per minute for an adult? 

12-18 cycles per minute


How can you measure volume?

wet spirometer


How can you measure pressure? 

U-tube monometer

pressue measured in cm/H2O


How would you measure airflow during speech? 

hot-wire anemometer


How would you measure large volumes like vital capactiy? 

pneumotachometer witha large flow screen


What is tidal volume (TV)?

amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one respiratory cycle

this varies as a function of physiologic exertion --> more TV with greater exhertion



What is quiet resting tidal volume for adults? 

~525 cc


What is inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)? 

maximum amount of air that can be inspired from the peak volume of passive tidal inhalation

volume of air reserved for us beyond tidal volume

breath in as deply as possible after a tidal inspiration


What is expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)? 

maximum amount of air that can be forecefully expired from the negative peak of expiration during the passive tidal volume cycle


What is the average ERV for adults? 

~1000 cc for adults 


What is residual volume(RV)? 

volume of air in the lungs after a maximum forced exhalation that you cannot exhale

this volume exists because of pleural linkage- lungs are always somewhat expanded so ther is always "some " air in them 


What is the average RV for an adult? 

1100 cc 


What is dead space air volume? 

air that does not contribute to O2- CO2 exchange because never meaks it to the alveoli

remains in the nasal vacities, larynx, trachea, boronchi and bronchioles

measured as part of RV 


What is the average dead space volume for an adult? 

150 cc 


How much does Vital Capcity decrease every year after age 25? 

100 mL/ year


What do the lungs want to do at all lung volumes? 

passively collapse, get smaller


What do the lungs want to do at high lung voluems, greater than 55% VC? 

chest wall aslo wants to passively collapse (get smaller) 


What do the lungs want to do at low lung volumes less than 55% VC?

chest wall wants to passively expand, get bigger


What percent VC is there an equilibrium between passive force of lung collapes and passive forces of chest expansion? 

38-40& VC


What is the ratio for inspiratory breathing vs. experitory breathing during quiet breathing? 

inspiratory: 40% 

experiatory 60%


What is the ratio of inspiratory breathing vs experiatory breathing during speech? 

Inspiratory 10%

Experiatory 90%