What is the innervation for the diaphragm?
What plexus does the phrenic nerve rise from? and what spinal nerves form this?
Cervical spinal nerves 3-5 ("three four and five keep us alive")
What innervates the neck muscles (ie scalenes)?
cervical spinal nerves
What innervates the thoracic muscles and levator costarum?
thoracic spinal nerves
What innervates muscles of the arm and shoulder:
What nerves form this?
Nerves from the brachial plexus
Formed by spinal nerves C4-C7 and Throacic Nerve T1
What innervates teh Sternocleidomastoid?
Crainial Nerve XI
What innervates the thoracic expiratory muscles?
thoracic spinal nerves
what innervades the abdominal expiratory muscles?
thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
What are volumes?
discrete units that refer to the amount of air in a given space
partioning off the respiratoy system so that we may get an accurate estimate of the amount of air each compartment can hold
What are capacities?
functional units that refer to a combination of volumes that express physiological limits
functional units that refer to combinations of voluemes that express physiological limits
measurment = mililiters or cubic centimeters 1 ml = 1cc
What is normal resting respiration per minute for an adult?
12-18 cycles per minute
How can you measure volume?
How can you measure pressure?
pressue measured in cm/H2O
How would you measure airflow during speech?
How would you measure large volumes like vital capactiy?
pneumotachometer witha large flow screen
What is tidal volume (TV)?
amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one respiratory cycle
this varies as a function of physiologic exertion --> more TV with greater exhertion
What is quiet resting tidal volume for adults?
What is inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)?
maximum amount of air that can be inspired from the peak volume of passive tidal inhalation
volume of air reserved for us beyond tidal volume
breath in as deply as possible after a tidal inspiration
What is expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)?
maximum amount of air that can be forecefully expired from the negative peak of expiration during the passive tidal volume cycle
What is the average ERV for adults?
~1000 cc for adults
What is residual volume(RV)?
volume of air in the lungs after a maximum forced exhalation that you cannot exhale
this volume exists because of pleural linkage- lungs are always somewhat expanded so ther is always "some " air in them
What is the average RV for an adult?
What is dead space air volume?
air that does not contribute to O2- CO2 exchange because never meaks it to the alveoli
remains in the nasal vacities, larynx, trachea, boronchi and bronchioles
measured as part of RV
What is the average dead space volume for an adult?
How much does Vital Capcity decrease every year after age 25?
100 mL/ year
What do the lungs want to do at all lung volumes?
passively collapse, get smaller
What do the lungs want to do at high lung voluems, greater than 55% VC?
chest wall aslo wants to passively collapse (get smaller)
What do the lungs want to do at low lung volumes less than 55% VC?
chest wall wants to passively expand, get bigger
What percent VC is there an equilibrium between passive force of lung collapes and passive forces of chest expansion?
What is the ratio for inspiratory breathing vs. experitory breathing during quiet breathing?
What is the ratio of inspiratory breathing vs experiatory breathing during speech?