What are the subsystems of speech production?
What are the structures of the airway system?
upper airway larynx lower airway
What are the functions of the upper airway?
warms air humidifies air filters the air conducts air to the lung (enterance) speech articulation- resonance
What are the structures of the upper airway?
oral cavity nasal cavity pharyngeal cavity
What is in in the oral cavity?
mouth lips teeth tongue
Why is the nose the preferred breathing method?
becasue it filter the air and warms the incoming air --> warms it through membranes that line the nose and contain lots of blood vessels
What is included in the Pharyngeal cavity?
nasopharynx oropharynx laryngopharynx
What are the functions of the larynx?
to act as a valve to protect the airway throacic fixation: in teh lungs and in the abdominal cavity used for bodily functions such as urination, defacation, child birth and vomiting speech phonation, allows for phonation
What are the structures of the larynx?
What are the functions of the lower airway
filters the air site of gas exchange power source for spech via build up of sbuglottal pressure
What are the structures in the lower airway?
bonchi and bronchioles
where does the trachea branch into the bronchi?
at the carina
What are pseudostriatified ciliated columnar epithelium?
cilia beat down quickly and slow upward at about 10/sec coninuously in motion these rid us of accumulated mucous, particles and dust --gets things ot the larynx then we can then cough it up
what do the bronchi and bronchioles do?
give us flexibility and motion ot maintain our airway extends from the trachea into the alveoli of the lungs impomplete carilaginous rings of decreasing diameter with increasinly more smooth muscles forms an arborized tree lik system
What are bronchi?
larger diameter passages outside and immediately inside the lungs
What are the bronchioles?
they appear after abou thte 24th division of the bronchi inside the lungs they get smaller and smaller in diameter with greater and greater surface area they have less and aless cartilage and more and more smc ending at the terminal bronchioles they (bronchioles) communicate with the alveolar air sacs
What are the two types of Alveoli?
Type I - this is the epitheolial cell lining Type II- these produce surfactant which reduces the surface tension of fluids in teh alveoli
What are the phagocyte cells
they destroy and break down debris
Are the lungs made of active or inactive tissue?
How many lobes does the right side of the lung have? How many lobes does the left side of the lung have?
Right = 3 Left =2
What is the top of the lungs called? What is the bottm of the lungs called?
Top = Apex Bottom = Base
What are pleural membranes?
they encase the lungs in a moist (serous), airtight membrane that adheres to the lungs and one adheres to the chest wall
What is the visceral (pulmonary) pleura
lines the outside of the lungs
What is the parietal (costal) pleura
attached to the chest wal/ rib cage
What is the visceral pleura
attached to the outside of the lungs, outside surface of lung continuous with parietal pleura
What is trauma to the lungs called?
What does the pleural linkage do?
Connects the visceral and parietal pleura due to surface tension of the fluid in the intrapleural space and negative intrapleural pressure
keeps lungs from deflating
lungs move with the chest wall in motion