Flashcards in Chapter 13: Peace, War, and Enlightened Despots Deck (17):
Characteristics of 18th Century: Political
- Monarchy was most prevalent form of the government.
- Aristocrats (wealthy merchants and nobles) were still quite powerful.
- Many divine right monarchs turned into enlightened despots.
Characteristics of 18th Century: International Relations
- Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia were the major powers in the 18th century.
- The major countries did not fight many wars. The wars they did fight, however, were strategic (rather than senseless bloodshed), fought for economic and political gain, and not fought over religion.
Three Period of the 18th Century
1715-1740: peace and prosperity.
1763-1789: enlightened despotism.
Peace and Prosperity, 1715-1740
- Great Britain was the leading power in Europe at the time.
- Britain utilized serfs and slaves for their crops, such as sugar plantations and grain.
- Robert Walpole in Parliament.
- France was weak under Louis XV.
England's first prime minister, who led the Whig Party in Parliament.
Louis XV was a very weak rule for France, and the nobles gained much of the power back that they lost from Louis XIV. Though France was still a powerful nation, the debt was growing.
- Hohenzollerns of Prussia vs. Habsburgs of Austria, and Britain vs. France for trade in North America, West Indies, and India.
- War of Austrian Succession.
- The Diplomatic Revolution.
- Seven Years' War.
War of Austrian Succession
Started when Maria Theresa took the Austrian Habsburg throne by the Pragmatic Sanction, but Frederick the Great of Prussia ignored this and captured Silesia. French was allied with the Prussians, and the English were allied with the Austrians.
Americans (British) captured French Louisbourg in Canada, and the French took English Madras in India.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle allowed Prussians to retain Silesia, but Madras and Louisbourg were returned.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
The treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession. Stated that Prussians could keep Silesia, but Madras and Louisbourg had to be returned.
Count Kaunitz, chancellor of Austria, wanted to recover Silesia, so he formed a coalition of France, Austria, and Russia.
The English then formed an alliance with Prussia to keep the balance of power. However, this did not change the basic rivalries of France vs. England and Austria vs. Prussia.
The Seven Years War
Colonial War: British took Quebec, and many French trading posts and sugar islands.
Continental War: Anti-Prussians were doing well. Prussia was saved when Peter III of Russia reigned, and dropped out of the war due to his admiration for Frederick the Great of Prussia.
Treaty of Paris, 1763: British keeps French Canada. French kept sugar islands and some of their Indian trading posts. The Prussians continued to retain Silesia.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Ended the Seven Years' War. Stated that Britain takes French Canada, French keeps its sugar islands and some of its Indian trading posts, and Prussia retains Silesia.
Enlightened Despotism, 1763-1789
Enlightened Despots got inspiration from the Philosophes, which stated that monarchs should use their power for the good of the people. Enlightened Despots promoted education, religious toleration, reason.
Good examples of enlightened despots include Catherine the Great (Russia), Frederick the Great (Prussia), and Joseph II (Austria).
Catherine the Great of Russia
Catherine's enlightened reforms include allowing some religious toleration for the Jews, education for daughters of the nobility, ending torture, reforming the legal code, and met with Voltaire and Diderot.
However, Catherine's enlightened reforms ended with Pugachev's Rebellion. She then gave nobles more traditional privileges and absolute power over their serfs.\
Catherine also promoted expansionary wars, which went against the philosophe's arguments.
An uprising of serfs led by Pugachev. The rebellion ended when Pugachev was captured, tortured, and executed. This ended Catherine's enlightened reign, to which nobles received more absolute power over their serfs.
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Frederick's enlightened reforms included inviting Voltaire to the palace, encouraging toleration of the Huguenots, ending torture in most cases, created a unified national code of law, and promoted scientific agriculture.
The Junkers received more rights (just like Catherine). The Junkers had full control over their serfs.