Flashcards in Chapter 6: The Protestant Reformation Deck (27):
Famous indulgence preacher that Martin Luther saw near Wittenburg that contributed greatly to his decision to post the 95 Theses.
Much of his indulgences were to be used towards the building of St. Peter's Basilica.
A certificate granted by the pope to relieve sins, lessen time in purgatory, or benefit dead relatives in return for a sum of money.
On October 31, 1517, Luther pinned his 95 Thesis (complaints of the church) to the church door in Wittenberg.
1. Salvation is achieved by faith alone.
2. The Bible is the only worthy authority.
3. There are only two holy sacraments: the Eucharist and Baptism.
4. Church includes all people that are faithful.
5. All acts of faith have equal merit.
6. Clergy should be able to marry.
German Peasant's Revolt
The German peasants misheard Luther's stand against the Catholic Church as an endorsement against the oppressive rule of their masters. However, Luther responded completely opposite to how the peasants expected, and instead condemned the peasants for their revolt and urged the nobles to crush the revolt.
Luther's view on women
The elimination of monasteries and convents was a key role in changing the role of 16th century women, as Luther thought they should strive to be models of obedience and Christian charity.
The Peace of Augsburg
The peace that ended the civil war between Protestants and Catholics within Germany in 1555. Allowed for each prince to decide the official religion of their state (either Catholic or Lutheran). Calvinists received no recognition.
Luther as a religious revolutionary
Luther's belief went farther than just reforming the Catholic church. Some of his intended reforms include the abolishment of monasteries, allowing priests to marry, reduction of the seven sacraments.
Luther as a political conservative
Luther insisted that people should be subordinate to the established authority, and sided with the German nobility.
John Calvin's beliefs
Calvin believed that humans were weak, corrupted, and insignificant. Because they are naturally sinful, God must pre-decide who will be eternally damned or saved: predestination.
Calvin also believed in ruling society for the glory of God.
Calvin vs. Luther differences
Calvin believed in predestination, while Luther did not.
Luther believed in the subordination of the Church to the state, whereas Calvin believed the elect had a duty to Christianize the state.
The people of Geneva asked Calvin to transform their town into a model Christian society. Characteristics included no frivolous activities such as music, art, dancing, and devout religious attendance.
Spread of Calvinism
Calvinism was spread to Scotland by Knox, to France (French Calvinists called the Huguenots), and the Puritan churches in England.
King of England. Was a devout Catholic and called the "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope. His political desires were more important to himself than any of his other obligations, evident in his many wives and many marriages.
Catherine of Aragon
Henry's first wife. When she could not produce a male heir for him, he asked the pope to annul their marriage. However, since she was the aunt of King Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, the pope was hesitant and later refused to annul the marriage.
The Act of Supremacy
1534. When King Henry VIII was thwarted by the church, he took to radical measures to get his divorce from Catherine. He made Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy in 1534, which stated that the King of England was the supreme Head of the Catholic Church. He then confirmed his own divorce and married Anne Boleyn. This act severed all ties between the monarch and the Church of England.
The dissolution of monasteries
Parliament passed a series of acts that officially dissolved all monasteries. Henry VIII then gave away the newly claimed lands to nobles, which ultimately garnered increased support for the Tudor dynasty.
Henry VIII vs. Martin Luther
Henry VIII and Luther both supported the nobles. While Luther supported the noble power by encouraging them to crush the German Peasants' Revolt, Henry VIII supported them by giving them claimed monastic lands. Both also believed the church should be subordinate to the state, and rejected papal authority.
Henry VIII was a devout Catholic, and was primarily motivated to reform the church due to his political desires to produce a male heir.
Luther was a Protestant, and was motivated to reform the church due to his faith.
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I inherited many religious problems after Henry VIII. Rulers before her continued to change the official religion of England between Catholicism and Protestantism, which created confusion. A politique, Elizabeth wanted to find a middle ground that both moderate Protestants and Catholics could agree on.
A ruler who believes political order is more important than one's own personal beliefs.
Isabella of Spain vs. Elizabeth I of England
Isabella of Spain and Elizabeth I of England both wanted a politically unified country, however their means of achieving this was widely different.
Isabella of Spain was a devout Catholic, and very religiously intolerant. She took part in the persecution of the Jews and Muslims, including the Reconquista of Muslim Granada. Both her and Ferdinand forced Jews and Muslims to either convert or to leave the country. This majorly hurt the Spanish economy due to valuable skills and workforce leaving.
Elizabeth I of England was a politique who believed the loyalty of her people was far more important than her own personal beliefs. Instated many religiously tolerant acts and dogmas, and achieved a period of cultural golden age and economic prosperity.
Religious group often seen as too radical by Protestants and Catholics. Main characteristics include rejection of infant baptism, rejection of secular agreements, and complete separation of the church and state. Main anabaptist includes Thomas Muntzer.
Luther's view on Protestant Reformation art
Luther liked and believed art promoted the word of God, especially to illiterate worshippers. He also implemented music into church services.
Calvin's view on Protestant Reformation art
Calvin's churches all had simple architecture, as he saw ornamentation and fancy shit frivolous and distracting for worshippers and their religious experience.
Wood carvings were a prominent art form in the Protestant Reformation. Dürer was a famous example of a wood carving artist.
Women in the Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation did not challenge the notion of women's subordination to men. However, Luther's teaching that all vocations have equal merit gave women greater dignity in doing domestic activity. The establishment of the printing press and reformation also increased literacy rates and encouraged women to read the Bible.