Flashcards in Chapter 5: The New Monarchs Deck (12):
Characteristics of Medieval Kings
Medieval kings received income from their own estates and vassals, and heavily relied upon their nobles. Medieval nobles had a lot of power (such as taxing peasants, enforcing law, waging war). While Medieval kings enjoyed much internal power, they shared power with the Church and was subordinate to the pope.
Characteristics of the New Monarchs
New monarchs still retained its feudal income, while also taxing peasants, towns, merchants. Monarchs created professional armies as well as a centralized bureaucracy, and negotiated a new relationship with the previously revered Catholic Church.
Factors Leading Up to New Monarchs
Innovations in military technology, growth of towns lead to an prosperous middle class and monarchs making predictable laws, and centralized bureaucracy allowed for monarchs to have more control over commerce and trade.
French new monarch. Ended the 100 years war by expelling English from France. Made most of the royal income by new taxes such as the taille (land tax) and gable (salt tax). Charles VII was also the first to create a professional army.
French new monarch. Enlarged Charles VII's permanent army, and promoted economic growth by promoting new industries such as silk weaving.
French new monarch. Signed the Concordat of Bologna.
Concordat of Bologna
Allowed the French King to nominate church positions, which effectively gave the french monarchy power over the Catholic Church.
English new monarch. Created the Star Chamber to hold power over the nobles, and to extend the royal authority. Also encouraged the wool industry and expanded the English marines.
English new monarch. Declared himself the King of the Catholic Church, which severed all ties between the crown and the church. Also dissolved all monasteries and confiscated all their land and wealth.
Enjoyed cultural diversity with prominent Muslim and Jewish communities (Muslims in Granada). Castile and Aragon dominated Navarre and Portugal.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Spanish new monarchs. Their marriage created a dynastic union of the two most powerful houses in the Iberian peninsula. They reduced the number of nobles on the royal court which reduced noble power. Took part in the Reconquista: the conquering and incorporation of Muslim Granada. Ruled by "one king, one law, one faith," and practiced very religiously intolerant laws.