Flashcards in Chapter 11: Absolutism in Eastern Europe Deck (15)
The Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was religiously divided (Catholics and Protestants), politically divided (300 independent states), and had no permanent army, centralized authority, etc. The Holy Roman Empire also had prevalent German states that prevailed over others.
Poland's king had very limited power. The diet required unanimous consent, so any vote could "explode" the diet. The lack of centralized power also caused a power vacuum.`
Most famous ruler was Suleiman the Magnificent. Though the Ottoman empire went through the revitalizing Tanzimat reforms, Ottomans still experienced a steady decline in power.
The Habsburgs experienced many set backs following the Thirty Years War and the extinction of the Habsburg line in Spain, however, they reaffirmed their power over multiple European countries and succeeded through the Treaty of Utrecht. The Habsburgs contained a large number of ethnic groups that were united in Catholicism and loyalty to the Habsburg.
The Pragmatic Sanction
Charles VI of Prussia wanted to ensure the safe succession of his daughter Maria Theresa. He had to make a few concessions before the Pragmatic Sanction could take place, and died believing he had ensured the safety of his realm.
Hohenzollerns of Prussia
Hohenzollerns became the hereditary rulers of Brandenburg in 1417. In the 17th century, Brandenburg inherited far more land from Prussia and the Rhine River. The empire was diverse and geographically spread with no natural boundaries, few resources, and a comparably small population.
Frederick William, the Great Elector
Began forging the unification of the Prussian empire. Recognized the importance of a well-equipped army to become a major state. To do this, he gained the trust of the Junkers, German landowners, and gave them full power over their serfs.
Frederick William I
Continued growing The Great Elector's army.
Russia was geographically and culturally isolated. The new ideas of the Reformation, Renaissance, Scientific Revolution, etc. barely affected Russia, leading to its backwardness.
After Ivan the Terrible, Russia experienced a period of hardship called the "Time of Troubles." Michael Romanov was then elected to be the next Czar, which began a new dynasty that lasted until 1917.
Peter the Great: Modernizing Russia
Peter visited England and Holland, taking notes on how to become westernized like the rest of Europe. Some of his reforms included the creation of a standing army, navy, introduction of the potato to agriculture, importing of skilled workers, liberating women of their veils, and making nobles shave their revered beards.
Peter the Great: Defeating Sweden
Peter wanted to end Sweden's dominance over the Baltic Sea, so he sent his army over. He ultimately won the war, resulting in Sweden's decline and Russia's emergence as the dominant power in the Baltic.
Peter the Great: Building St. Petersburg
Peter the Great began building St. Petersburg in 1703. It came to serve as a symbol of Peter the Great and the new and improved Russia.
The old nobility that supported traditional noble culture who posed a great threat to Peter's revamping Russia plan.