Flashcards in Chapter 19: Industry, Mass Politics, and Culture Deck (32)
Second Industrial Revolution
End of 19th century focused on electricity, oil, gas, chemicals.
In the second industrial revolution, steel production increased while reducing costs due to the Bessemer Process.
Main Inventions of the Second Industrial Revolution
Telephone: Invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
Internal combustion engine: increased gas powered automobiles and mechanics.
World Economy in the Second Industrial Revolution
Great Britain, Germany, and United States dominated the world economy and production of manufactured goods. However, Great Britain's power was waning with the emergence of Germany and US.
Population and Urbanization
Population grew in this time with less death rates and increasing agriculture and industrialization. Many people migrated to the cities and lived in urban tenements.
"The Beautiful Period." After WWI, people would remember this time of peace, prosperity, and progress (3 P's) as the "belle époque."
Classes in Second Industrial Revolution Europe
Upper class: comprised very small percentage of people, but they lived very luxurious life styles.
Middle class: About a fourth of European population. Cheaper foods and increase in real wages allowed people to purchase home machinery, cars, and more leisure time and activities (opera, café, dance halls, rugby).
Working class: Majority of the population. While lives for these people did improve little with the increase in real wages, the lifestyles did not change much – gross slums had deadly diseases.
Women's Rights: Key Voices
- Olympe de Gouges: Wrote "The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Citizen," which argued for the quality of female French rights to men.
- Mary Wollstonecraft: Wrote "Vindication on the Rights of Women," which argued that the lack of equality in gender is due to the lack of education for females.
- John Stuart Mill: "Subjection of Women," which argued for the equality of women.
- Ibsen: "A Doll's House" criticized traditional marriage roles.
Women's Rights: Economic Hardships
Industrial Revolution opened more economic opportunities for women, as many women and children joined the labor force for lower wages than men.
As trade unions began to win more wages for men, they opposed women taking skilled jobs. Women with education were reduced to only being teachers or nurses.
Women's Rights: Legal Discrimination
- Women could not make contracts for property or child custody.
- By 1880s, some of these unfair laws were changed especially in more industrialized countries (divorce).
- Women still did not get the right to vote anywhere.
Women's Rights: Suffrage
United States: Seneca Falls Convention, Susan B. Anthony and others fight for suffrage.
Britain: Millicent Fawcett tried to pressure Parliament members into giving women suffrage. Emmeline Pankhurst promoted even violent acts, such as hunger strikes and tampering with Parliament member's mailboxes. Emily Davidson committed suicide by throwing herself in front of the king's horse at the derby to raise awareness for suffrage. Overall, these attempts failed.
Women's Rights: "Angel in the House"
The ideal woman of the middle class was a stay at home mother, and an "angel in the house." They supervised their children's education and domestic servants.
Women's Rights: New Woman
By the end of the 19th century, women began to get more independent lifestyles. The began becoming activists in the communities, and bikes and transportation allowed women to leave the home easily. Also the end of corsets and petticoats to promote easier movement and transportation.
Age of Mass Politics
In the end of 19th century, early 20th century, men were granted universal suffrage. Political parties began to gain prominence as well as trade unions. Legislation was also made to help out the lower classes.
However, the balance of power was especially unstable with nationalism, second industrial revolution, and realpolitik.
Began with giving up Alsace and Lorraine to the Germans. Parisians did want treaty or a conservative government, and the Commune was a party to protest this. However, the government troops crushed all the opposition from the Communards, which left a class hatred in French politics.
Dreyfus was a Jewish offer who was wrongfully accused of selling French military secrets to the Germans. He was sentenced to life on Devil's Island. Emile Zola wrote "J'accuse" to defend Dreyfus, and was completely exonerated in a few years.
This represented a wide-spread feeling of anti-semitism.
"The Jewish State"
Written by Theodore Herzl, which advocated for a home country for the Jews. Inspired by the Dreyfus Affair.
In the 19th century, Ireland was joined with Great Britain and ruled by British parliament. Parnell led the Irish in trying to get its own Parliament, and Gladstone (prime minister) supported this. Gladstone's support split the liberals and conservatives, allowing the conservatives to take power.
Irish Home Rule Bill passed in 20th century.
Irish Home Rule Bill
Passed in the 20th century, allowing Irish to have their own parliament.
Franchise Act of 1884
Allowed rural male laborers to receive enfranchisement.
Germany's State Social Welfare
Was the first country to instate a state social welfare program. Bismarck included health insurance, pensions, accident insurance, etc to prove that Germany was a benevolent institution, not an oppressor.
Arrogant guy who wanted to rule alone, so he forced Bismarck to resign. He continued expanding all of Bismarck's policies and social welfare program, in which Germany continued to grow economically and militarily.
Russia's Autocracy and Succession
Alexander II (from Crimean war) -> Alexander III -> Nicholas II.
Alexander II was assassinated which ended Russia's brief period of reform after the Crimean War. In contrast, Alexander III and Nicholas II were both autocrats who believed in tradition and Russification.
Both rulers supported anti-Semitic attacks called the pogroms.
Political Divisions ( Kadets vs. Social Democrats)
Kadets vs. Social democrats. Cadets wanted a constitutional monarchy, while the social democrats want a revolution.
Social democrats broke into the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks. Mensheviks wanted gradual reform, while Bolsheviks (led by Lenin) wanted a communist revolution run by a small group of elites.
The 1870 to 1900 was a time of Japanese military and naval improvement, which surprised the rest of Europe. Japan became more imperialistic with its power, and took over parts of China and Manchuria.
Japan's interest in Manchuria alarmed the Russians, which culminated into the Russo-Japanese War, which Japans crushed the Russians.
Revolution of 1905
Occurred in Russia. After the Russo-Japanese War, the weakness of the autocratic regime of Alexander III and Nicholas II was exposed. Led to Bloody Sunday and the reluctant adoption of the Duma by Nicholas II.
Cossacks open fire on peaceful protesters, which provoked many strikes and demand for change. This led to Nicholas II reluctantly adopting a Duma.
Revolution in the scientific and medical industry.
- Louis Pasteur: experiments that added to the germ theory, discovered heat could kill many bacteria, and invented pasteurization process.
- Robert Koch: discovered tuberculosis bacteria, and bacteria are responsible for certain diseases.
- Lister: advocated sterile surgery, as well as the use of carbonic acid to sterilize medical instruments.
Impact: saved millions of lives, lengthened human life expectancy, and urban life style was greatly improved.
Came up with the theory of evolution. In "On the Origin of Species," Darin argued for natural selection and the concept of evolution, which contradicted the Christian view that God had put all the species on Earth and it has not changed since.
Also caused controversy with the Enlightened view that we lived in a "predictable and tranquil world," since evolution means things are always changing.