Chapter 21: The Age of Anxiety Flashcards Preview

AP European History Crash Course > Chapter 21: The Age of Anxiety > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 21: The Age of Anxiety Deck (21):
1

Old Certainties

- Power of reason to understand the universe.
- Power of science and technology to improve standard of living.
- Individual rights.

2

Impact of WWI

WWI was a dark time filled with unprecedented deaths and gore, which changed many people's views from optimism to pessimism, leading people to question their views of personal liberties, progress, reason, etc.

There was an intellectual crisis in every field of thought, with newfound stress on human's destructive nature, uncertainty, and anxiety.

3

Friedrich Nietzche

Frontrunner of existentialism, and claimed middle class lifestyle was shallow and useless. Believed that only a heroic "superman" could fix the disorder in our world.

4

Existentialism

Rejection of reason, and embracement of the strange and irrational. God, reason, and progress do not exist, and humans are doomed to live in an isolated, lonely world.

A person is a sum of all their life choices. Key thinkers are Camus and Sartre.

5

Newtonian Physics

Depicted the world as a machine, that was governed by unchanging laws, which promoted an optimistic view of nature.

6

Albert Einstein

Proposed the theory of relativity, which challenged previous notions of time, space, and motion. This changed the previous Newtonian thought, as humans lived in a world with few certainties, which kind of contributed to the uncertainties of the human world.

7

Sigmund Freud

Believed human psyche had three parts: id, ego, and the superego.

Freud's theories undermined the Enlightenment belief that humans are inherently rational beings. His findings also seemed to present an explanation to the horrors of WWI.

8

Futurism

- Glorified war, patriotism, courage, audacity, revolt.
- Abandoned classical artistic traditions.
- Influenced the glorification of war by Mussolini and the fascists.

Artists:
- Boccioni
- Severini

9

Dada

- Protested the madness and absurdity of reason.
- Cultivated absurdity by challenging and denouncing traditional assumptions about art.

Artists:
- Duchamp
- Arp

10

Surrealism

- Uses Freud to explore the imagination.
- Depicts world as dreams and imagination.

Artists:
- Chirico
- Dali

11

Bauhaus Architecture

Architecture should be practical, useful, and functional. Architects should avoid unnecessary exterior and keep to clear, straight lines.

Artists:
- Gropius

12

20th Century Literature

Literature often expresses discontent and alienation from the middle class, and the complexity and irrationality of the human mind.

Writers:
- T.S. Eliot
- Joyce

13

Conceptions of the Individual in the Age of Anxiety

- Rejected classical standards of beauty and belief in human potential.
- Disillusioned by Einstein's view
- Human existence is meaningless (existentialism)

14

Problems with the Current International Order

- Germany resented the Treaty of Versailles.
- US rejected the Treaty of Versailles and went into isolationism.
- France wanted to keep the Treaty of Versailles.
- Russia remained outside.

15

Weimar Republic

New German republic that faced lots of reparations. They tried printing a shit ton of money but that only led to inflation. This inflation destroyed the middle class which made them more susceptible to the propaganda.

16

Dawes Plan

- Reestablish a sound German currency.
- American loans to Germany which ended the inflation.

17

Locarno Pact

- Guarantees the borders between Germany and France.

18

Kellogg Briand Pact

- Renounced war as an instrument of national policy.
- Renewed spirit of optimism and collectivism.

19

Dawes Plan

- Reestablish a sound German currency.
- American loans to Germany which ended the inflation.

20

Locarno Pact

- Guarantees the borders between Germany and France.

21

Kellogg Briand Pact

- Renounced war as an instrument of national policy.
- Renewed spirit of optimism and collectivism.