Chapter 14: Ecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14: Ecology Deck (75):
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ecology

the scientific study of the interaction between organisms, populations, or communities and their biotic and abiotic environment

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biotic

living

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abiotic

non-living

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environment

has biotic and abiotic components

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biomes

a. major ecosystems distributed by latitude
b. a major ecosystem characterized by a predominant plant community and animals adapted to these plants

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permafrost

permanently frozen subsoil

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epiphytes

plants that grow on top of other plants (ex: orchids, mistletoe)

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vertical stratification

different plant and animal communities exist at different heights of the forest canopy

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limiting factor

a single abiotic factor, scarce in supply, which when increased will bring about the production of more organisms

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C4 plants

plants that can take in carbon dioxide and store it in a four carbon compound, enabling the carbon fixation process to be compartmentalized

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forbs

small broadleaf plants

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aquatic biomes

an ecosystem that occurs in water; contains plants and animals specialized to exist in water

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ecotones

the areas where habitats overlap

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photic zones

penetrated by light

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aphotic zones

penetrated by less light

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chemosynthesis

chemical energy is obtained by oxidizing inorganic substances such as hydrogen sulfide; doesn't need light energy

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thermocline

a heat gradient that varies with depth; temperature can vary greatly between layers and may change seasonally

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phytoplankton

plant organisms such as algae

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zooplankton

animal-like plankton

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oligotrophic

nutrient poor, clear, deep lake with phytoplankton

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eutrophic

nutrient rich, shallow, wide lake with high amounts of phytoplankton

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hydrophytes

have special adaptations that allow them to thrive where plants could not (ex: pond lilies, cattails)

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neritic zone

shallow regions over continental shelfts

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coral reefs

invertebrates with associated plants and animals

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organismal ecology

the study of individual organisms and how they interact with their environment

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ethology

the study of animal behavior

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fixed action patterns (FAPs)

highly stereotypical behaviors that are species specific and genetically based. The behaviors must be completed once initiated.

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releasers

environmental stimuli that trigger stereotypical behaviors

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imprinting

learning that is restricted to a time period in an organism's life and is typically irreversible

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dihybrid cross

an experimental cross involving two genes

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backcross

a testcross with one of the original P1 parents

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testcross

breeding an organisms of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive; the ratio of the offspring phenotypes determines the unknown genotype

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optimal foraging theory

employed by behavioral ecologists to predict which prey organisms are selected based on cost/benefit factor

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intraspecific

within a giving species

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agonistic

threatening or posturing

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sexual selection

the process where advantages in attracting or competing for mates results in differential reproductive success

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natural selection

the process where advantages in an individual's interaction with its environment results in differential reproductive success

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lek

a group of males who gather to perform courtship displays

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population

all of the members of the same species in a given area

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life history

characteristics of an organism that pertain to their schedule of growth, reproduction, and death

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exponential

populations which grow under ideal conditions at an intrinsic rate of increase

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logistic population growth

rate of growth decreases as population increases and reaches carrying capacity

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carrying capacity

the number of individuals of the population that a particular environment can support with no net increase or decrease over an extended period of time (represented by K in the logistic model)

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intraspecific competition

members of the same species vie for the same limited resources

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density dependent factor

increases in relative effect as population size increases; ex: availability of food

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density independent variables

factors that reduce populations size regardless of population density; ex: weather

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community ecology

the study of how populations of different species interact with each other and their environment

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coevolution

a change over time involving two species where a change in one drives a change in the other

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competitive exclusion

the concept that two species with similar resource requirements cannot coexist

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ecological niche

an organism's role in its environment; the total of an organism's use of biotic and abiotic factors

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character displacement

the occurence of characteristics that are more divergent in co-occurring populations than in separately occurring populations

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symbiosis

a close relationship between two species consisting of a host and its symbiont

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zooxanthelae

multicellular algae

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ecological succession

change in community structure over time

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facilitative replacement

the presence of a species in a community changes the environment allowing new species to colonize

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lichen

symbiotic association of algal and fungus

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virgin stands

undisturbed forest

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secondary succession

disruption of an existing community that leaves the soil intact

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community

all of the organisms that live in a certain area and interact with each other

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species diversity

the number of species in a community

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primary producer

organisms that form the base of a food chain, usually photoautotrophs

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ecosystem

interrelationships of organisms with their biotic and abiotic environment

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entropy

tendency towards disorder

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trophic levels

a way of categorizing species according to their source of nutrition

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food chain

shows transfer of food energy from one trophic level to the next starting with primary producers

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detritivores

obtain energy from non-living organic material

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primary productivity

a measurement of the incorporation of energy and materials into the bodies of organisms

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biomass

the aggregate dry weight of all organisms in a community or ecosystem

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joule

a unit of energy

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transpiration

the process by which water evaporates from a plant's leaves

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agronomy

the practice of applying soil and plant sciences to farming

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algae blooms

above average growth of photosynthetic organisms

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dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)

a fat soluble pesticide used to control insects that is potentially harmful to other animals, and has been banned in the United States

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biological magnification

the process where toxins become accumulated with each successive trophic level

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greenhouse effect

rising global temperatures as a result of the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere