Chapter 7: Biotechnology Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Chapter 7: Biotechnology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7: Biotechnology Deck (34):
1

biotechnology

the utilization of organisms and their components to perform functional tasks in research and make products that are useful to humans

2

plasmid

a small piece of extrachromosomal DNA found in prokaryotes

3

pilus

a structure in certain bacteria that allows for the transfer of DNA during bacterial conjugation

4

antibiotic

a substance produced by a fungus that is able to kill bacteria

5

plasmid vectors

mechanisms which carry genes contained in plasmids from one place to another

6

restriction enzyme (restriction endonuclease)

an enzyme that bacteria make to cut foreign DNA (hint: inside, "endo" the nucleus)

7

ligase

an enzyme that joins DNA segments together, forming a single DNA strand

8

probe

a single-stranded, synthesized segment of radioactively labelled DNA or RNA that is used to find a gene of interest (because it is complementary to the sequence of the gene of interest)

9

DNA hybridization

hydrogen bonding between two strands of DNA due to complementary base pairing

10

reverse transcriptase

an enzyme that makes DNA from RNA

11

intron

a noncoding sequence found in a gene

12

electrophoresis

the separation of molecules based on their rate of movement through a gel under an electric field

13

ddNTP

dideoxiribonucleotides, where N is one of the four nitrogenous bases

14

polymorphic DNA

two homologous pieces of DNA have different restriction fragments after exposure to a restriction enzyme

15

VNTRs (variable number tandem repeats)

repeating sequences of DNA that vary in their number of repeating units between individuals

16

antennapedia

a gene that, when mutated, causes the growth of legs when antennae should be

17

gene map

a listing of genes present on a plasmid or chromosome and their relative locaions

18

genomic DNA

the DNA making up the entire genome of an organism

19

gene

a unit of heredity

20

polygenic

caused by several genes

21

alternative splicing

combining genes from a single strand of DNA in different combinations can result in different proteins

22

transcription

the process in which DNA is deciphered to yield RNA

23

expanded complexity

additions of DNA sequence to existing genes

24

transcription factors

______ control which genes are expressed and when

25

compounding

the increasing complexity at an exponential rate as the protein products of genes are combined in different ways

26

Type I restriction endonuclease

makes simple cuts on both DNA strands

27

Type II restriction endonuclease

makes staggered cuts where sequences are the same on both sides

28

dyad symmetry

where the sequences of two DNA strands are the same on both sides

29

multiple cloning site (MCS)

the region in a plasmid where DNA is inserted

30

phages

viruses that infect bacterial cells

31

chimera

a new genome that is nonexistent in nature

32

4-I

the initial stage of screening, which involves getting rid of cells without vectors, or without original DNA, using a vector with a gene for antibiotic resistance, and is based on the presence or absence of a certain phenotype

33

4-II

the second stage of screening, which involves finding the gene of interest, using hybridization to find a particular fragment, and then denaturing DNA, allowing the radioactive probe to attach

34

Ti plasmids

tumor-inducing plasmids