Chapter 8: Cell Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Cell Reproduction Deck (44):
1

packing

a series of steps that a cell does to organize its DNA

2

chromatin

DNA wrapped around proteins (hint: histones)

3

centromere

the region joining two molecules of DNA

4

kinetochore

part of the centromere that connects to the spindle fiber (hint: microtubule)

5

tubulin

a protein that makes up microtubules

6

microtubules

a hollow cylindrical cytoskeleton element

7

chromatid

one half-chromosome

8

motor proteins

proteins within the kinetochore, which depolymerize microtubules and shorten them, causing the chromatids to separate

9

centrosomes

Structures which are made up of two centrioles, and are the poles from which spindle fibers originate. They help aid chromosomal movement in cell division, and help initiate microtubule formation.

10

cytokinesis

the division of the cell's cytoplasm

11

mitosis

the division of the cell's nucleus

12

spindle

the array of microtubules at the metaphase plate

13

actin

a globular protein that links into chains, forming microfilaments, and is a component of the contractile ring in animal cells

14

myosin

thicker filaments made of protein

15

asters

star-like clusters made up of microtubules which originate from the centrosomes

16

MPF/maturation promoting factor

the activated complex of cyclin and cyclin-dependent protein kinase

17

proteolysis

the breakdown of proteins into amino acids by enzymes

18

malignant tumor

a tumor whose cells can spread to other organs and invade surrounding tissues

19

benign tumor

a tumor that grows to a certain size then stops, and does not spread

20

Hela cells

the cancer cells of Henrietta Lacks

21

oncogenes

a cancer causing gene found in viruses and genomes of organisms

22

proto-oncogenes

a regularly occurring gene that is involved in cell cycle regulation, and has the potential to become an oncogene if altered

23

metastasis

the migration of cancer cells from their origin

24

signal transduction pathway

a mechanism linking mechanical or chemical stimulus to a cellular response

25

transcription factor

a protein that stimulates transcription of genes by binding to DNA

26

telomerase

an enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres

27

telomeres

repeated DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes

28

recombinants

new combinations of genes

29

gametes/sex cells/germ cells

mature reproductive cell, (hint: a sperm or an egg)

30

diploid

a cell with two copies of each chromosome

31

haploid

a cell with one copy of each chromosome

32

homologous chromosomes

chromosome pairs that have the same genetic composition and are derived from different parents

33

synapsis

the pairing of homologous chromosomes

34

chiasma (pl. chiasmata)

the area where crossing over takes place between homologous chromosomes

35

tetrad

a structure composed of two homologues in synapsis (4 chromatids)

36

disjunction

the separation of homologous chromosomes

37

independent assortment

the result of the random orientation of homologous pairs of chromosomes along the metaphase plate

38

spermatogenesis

formation of sperm

39

seminiferous tubules

tubes in the testes where spermatogenesis takes place

40

Sertoli cells

nutrient cells that nourish developing sperm

41

gonads

gamete producing organs in most animals

42

oogonium

cells that give rise to the primary oocyte

43

polar body

a cell that results from an unequal division of cytoplasm during oogenesis, and eventually degrades

44

zygote

a fertilized egg