Chapter 4: Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Respiration Deck (37):
1

phosphorylated intermediates

molecules that couple energy from ATP hydrolysis with an endergonic reaction, resulting in an exergonic reaction, thus making the reaction able to occur spontaneously

2

phosphorylation

the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule

3

respiration

the process in which ATP is generated and stored from the breakdown of organic molecules, namely glucose

4

glycolysis

the first step of respiration, in which enzymes break down glucose, and use the released energy to make ATP. This process takes place in the cytoplasm, and is anaerobic.

5

pyruvate

a three-carbon substance produced by glycolysis

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oxidation

the loss of electrons, resulting in a positive charge on the ion

7

reduction

the gain of electrons, resulting in a negative charge on the ion

8

oxidizing agent

the ion that is reduced

9

reducing agent

the ion that is oxidized

10

NAD+

a cofactor/coenzyme that is a dinucleotide derived from niacin, a type of B vitamin. This molecule gains a hydrogen atom during an oxidation-reduction reaction, and thus helps transport electrons.

11

high-energy bond

a bond that, when broken, releases large amounts of energy

12

aerobic

requiring oxygen

13

anaerobic

not requiring oxygen

14

cofactor

a nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for an enzyme's function

15

dehydrogenase

an enzyme that transfers hydrogen atoms from food to NAD+

16

hexokinase

the enzyme that is responsible for the first step of glycolysis, in which glucose is phosphorylated into a glucose-6-phosphate

17

phosphoglucoisomerase

an isomerase enzyme that is responsible for the second step of glycolysis, in which glucose-6-phosphate becomes fructose-6-phosphate

18

isomerase

a specific type of enzyme that converts a molecule into one of its isomers

19

phosphofructokinase

the enzyme that is responsible for the third step of glycolysis, in which fructose-6-phosphate is phosphorylated into fructose 1,6-biphosphate

20

substrate-level phosphorylation

the process by which ATP is produced by transferring a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP

21

triose phosphate dehydrogenase

a three-carbon sugar phosphate enzyme that is responsible for the sixth step of glycolysis, in which G3P is oxidized and phosphorylated to produce 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and 2 NADH + H+ molecules are produced

22

phosphoglycerokinase

the enzyme that is responsible for the seventh step of glycolysis, in which a phosphate group is removed from each 1,3-biphosphoglycerate, forming a 3-phosphoglycerate and 2 ATP

23

phosphoglyceromutase

the enzyme that is responsible for the eighth step of glycolysis, in which the remaining phosphate group of a 3-phosphoglycerate molecule is transferred to the middle carbon of a 2-phosphoglycerate molecule

24

enolase

the enzyme that is responsible for the ninth step of glycolysis, in which 2-phosphoglycerate becomes phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) by the removal of a water molecule, and a double bond is formed on both 2-phosphoglycerate molecules

25

pyruvate kinase

the enzyme that is responsible for the tenth step of glycolysis, in which PEP molecules are dephosphorylated to produce 2 pyruvates and 2 ATP

26

facultative anaerobes

organisms that are able to undergo fermentation when deprived of oxygen (hint: yeast)

27

alcohol fermentation

the anaerobic process in which a pyruvate molecule is decarboxylated, hydrogen from NADH + H+ is used to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol, resulting in NAD+, CO2, and 2 ATP

28

lactic acid fermentation

the anaerobic process in which 2 pyruvates are converted to 2 lactic acid molecules, and then the lactic acid molecules are ionized to form lactate, and 2 NADH + H+ becomes 2 NAD+, and 2 ATP

29

isomerization

the process in which a molecule is converted into its isomer

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G3P

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

31

PEP

phosphoenolpyruvate

32

decarboxylation

the removal of a carbon dioxide molecule

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Electron transport chain

A sequence of electron carrier membrane proteins that move electrons through a series of redox reactions that release energy to make ATP

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Phosphorylated intermediates

the energy from ATP is transferred to another molecule to feul a reaction

35

ATP synthase

a protein complex that is able to make ATP from the movement of H+ down a concentration gradient

36

Chemiosmosis

the movement of protons across the membrane and through ATP synthase which drives the production of ATP

37

Oxidative phosphorylation

 the process of ATP production that is driven by oxidation (redox) reactions