Chapter 5: Photosynthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Photosynthesis Deck (28):
1

photosynthesis

an autotrophic process that uses light energy and simple molecules to make carbohydrates

2

carbon fixation

the incorporation of carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) into organic molecules such as carbohydrates

3

photolysis

the first part of photosynthesis in which light energy splits water molecules

4

granum

a stack of thylakoids, which function in the light reaction of photosynthesis

5

thylakoid

a flat sac in the chloroplast, which converts light energy to chemical energy

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light-harvesting antennae

groups of pigments that help capture energy from light in a photosystem and pass the light to the reaction center

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stroma

the fluid surrounding the grana inside the chloroplast

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pigment

a substance that is able to absorb light

9

action spectrum

shows the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light on photosynthesis

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absorption spectrum

plots the absorbance against the wavelength of light for a specific pigment

11

carotenoids

a chemical that aids in light absorption for photosynthesis where chlorophyll a and b cannot pick up light

12

photoelectric effect/photoexcitation

light’s ability to elevate electrons to a more excited state

13

discrete quanta

unconnected distinct amounts (i.e. photon: a particle of light)

14

ground state

the natural energy state of an electron

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reaction center

the location of the chlorophyll a molecule that will lose an excited electron in a photosystem

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photosystem

a light-harvesting group of pigments

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NADPH reductase

the enzyme that reduces NADP to NADPH + H

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a primary electron acceptor

chlorophyll a's electron can only be passed to . . .

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ferredoxin

a membrane protein that gains an electron during photosystem I

20

cyclic electron flow

occurs when there is a buildup up NADPH, resulting in electrons being passed down a transport chain and eventually forming ATP

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photophosphorylation

the production of ATP from cyclic electron flow

22

rubisco

an enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the Calvin cycle

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C3 plants

plants that obtain a 3-carbon molecule as the result of carbon fixation

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C4 plants

plants that obtain a 4-carbon molecule as the result of carbon fixation

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bundle sheath cell

a distinct type of cell found in C4 plants that is arranged around the veins of the leaf. The Calvin cycle occurs in the chloroplast of these cells.

26

CAM plants

plants that produce organic acids from CO2 at night, and release CO2 in the day

27

halophile

an organism that can grow in saline conditions

28

bacteriorhodopsin

a light-absorbing chemical found in bacteria that functioned as an antenna in Archaea which aided in the production of ATP