Chapter 14: The Presidency Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14: The Presidency Deck (125):
0

Divided government

One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress

1

Unified government

The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress

2

Gridlock

The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government

3

Electoral college

The people chosen to cast each state's votes in a presidential election. Each state can cast one electoral vote for each senator and representative it has. The District of Columbia has three electoral votes, even though it cannot elect a representative or senator.

4

Pyramid structure

A presidents subordinates report to him through a clear chain of command headed by a chief of staff

5

Circular structure

Several of the president's assistants report directly to him

6

Ad hoc structure

Several subordinates, cabinet officers, and committees report directly to the president on different matters

7

Cabinet

The heads of the fifteen executive branch departments of the federal government

8

Bully pulpit

The president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public

9

Veto message

A message from the president to congress stating that he will not sign a bill it has passed. Must be produced by within ten says of the bill's passage

10

Pocket veto

A bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourns

11

Line-item veto

An executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature

12

Legislative veto

The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power

13

Impeachment

Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives

15

Lame duck

A person still in office after he or she has lost a bid for reelection

16

Who is the chief executive in a parliamentary system and how are they chosen?

The prime minister
they are chosen by the legislature
stay in power as long as their party has majority or their coalition holds

17

Who tends to be outsiders: Presidents or Prime Ministers?

Presidents
want to be away form the mess in Washington

18

True or False: The preisdent most often chooses MoCs to be part of the cabinet

False
can't have sitting members hold office in exec

19

True or false: Prime ministers most often choose members from parliamnet

true
this is how they exert control over Parliament

20

Do presidents have guaranteed majorities in the legislature?

no #dividedgovernment

21

True or False: when the US has unified government, the pres can often get a lot done

false still lots of inability to get things done

22

True or False: americans say they don't like divided government

true

23

True or false: Divided governments do about as well in passing important laws, conducting important investigations, and ratifying significant treaties

true

24

Why do divided governments tend to produce as much important legislation as unified ones?

unified gov isn't real [lots of intraparty issues]
constitution set up-pres and Congress rivals for powerrrrrrrrrrrr and in policy-making

25

When is there [actually] unified government?

when the same ideological wing of the same party has control over both branches of gov
ex. FDR LBJ

26

How could we fix gridlock?

change the constituion to be parliamentary
vote in MoCs that always agree with the Pres on everything

27

Do people split tickets on purpose?

maybe
research is unclear

28

True or false: gridlock needs to of a system of representative democracy

Trueeeee
system causes delays
instensifies deliberation
forces comp
requires creation of broad based coalitions

29

True or false: gridlock is a necessary consequence of direct democracy

falseeeeeee
direct dmeocracy is about efficiency and minimizing fuss

30

True or false: the framers only feared monarchy

falseeeee
anarchy

31

Did ALexander Hamilton want a strong executive?

yes
ger wanted an elective monarchy

32

Who wanted the executive like we have now?

Wilsonnnnn

33

What were the concerns of the framers over the presidency?

President could use militia to overpower state government
others didn't want him to become a tool of the senate
didn't want him to stay in office forever because he could like bribe perople

34

True or false: the framers thought elections would be thrown to the House of Representatives all the time

True

35

Why doesn't Congress elect the president?

Congress could dominate an honest or lazy prez
or a scheming prez could dominate congress

36

What did the framers would think would happen with the electoral college?

people would vote for like their favorite kids and their would be no majority and of course the House of Representatives would decide

37

How many terms can the president serve?

two
22 amendment

38

True or false: people were originally hostile to parties

true
remember Washington's farewell address

39

What were the important things the national gov had to do early in history?

like currency and debt
hang out with England and France

40

With the first presidents what was most important in appointments?

community status
partisanship rose up but community opinion was super important

41

Can a president's likeness appear on a coin or currency at any time?

no ,only after death

42

How did Jackson's vetoes differ from earlier presidents?

they were not just based on constitutionality also policy

43

True or false: jackson made for a strong presidency

true
however, Congress reasserted power after

44

Who really stepped up the use of presidential powers-- especially implied ones?

Lincoln

45

Up until the new deal (from Lincoln minus WIlson and Rooselevlt) what characterized the presidency?

a negative force
just in opposition to Congress

46

In the past, when was the presidency powerful?

Personality or war

47

From Eisenhower to Reagan, who often took the lead in setting the legislative agenda?

Congress

48

True or False: generally, congress proposes, the presidents disposes, and the two struggle it out

true

49

Powers of the president alone

serve as commander in chier
commission officers of the armed forces
grant reprieces and pardons for deferal offenses (expect impeachment)
Convene Congress in Special sessions
receive ambassadors
take care that laws are faithfully executed
wield executive power
appoint officials to lesser offices

50

Powers of the President That are shared with senate

make treaties
appoint ambassadors judges, and high officials

51

Powers of the President shared with Congress in general

approve legislation

52

Does the list of presidential powers look impressive?

ig intrepreted alone and narrowly, nope

53

What did Woodrow Wilson say a president needed to do to succeeed?

obey Congress and not die

54

What is one of the most elastically interpreted phrases in the Constitution>

duty of "take care that the laws be faithgully executed"

55

Where is greatest source of presidential power found>

oublic opinion

56

rule of propinquity

power is wielded by people who arei n the room when a decision is made

57

What are the three degrees of propinquity?

White House Office, Executive Office, and the cabinet

58

Do members of the white house staff need to be confirmed?

no

59

Evaluation of Pyramid Structure

orderly flow of info and and decisions
may isolate prezzzz

60

Evaluation of Circular Method

pres gets info but there may confusion and conflict amongst others

61

Evaluation of ad hoc structure

flexibility and less bureaucratic inertia
can cut prez off from gov officials who are responsible for things

62

where are members of senior white house staff usually from?

campaign (sometimes exprets)

63

are special assistants to the prez high status?

nope

64

Is access to the president important?

yesss
influence policy and things like that

65

Executive Office of The Pres

agencies report directly to the President
members may be bffs with hhim or her

66

Principal agencis in the executive office

Management and Budget
National Intelligence
Economic Advisers
Personal Management
US Trade Representatives

67

What is the most important agency in the Executive Office?

Office of Management and Budget OMB
look at figures in Budget
studies the executive branch
looks at ways of getting better info
reviews proposals
more than 500 people
nonpartisan in past

68

Do the president and cabinet meet all the tiem?

nope
they used to

69

Who are cabinet members?

generally heads of major executive departments

70

What does the age of agencies affect?

protocol

71

Who appoints/controls more members of the Cabinet prez or PMs?

prez
has to make up for separation of powers

72

Are cabinet members more representatives of the president to the agency or of the agency to the prez?

agency to the president

73

What are the advantages of making appointments?

reward friends

74

What are the differences and similarities between an executive and independent agency?

similarity: can appoint to both
executive- serve at pleasure of pres, removed at discretion
independent- fixed terms of office, can only be removed for cause

75

acting appointee

holds office until senate acts on nomination

76

Where do cabinet officers and deputies come from?

like think tanks and wherever
some prior fed experience
generally alternate between public and private sector #revolvingdoor
in past, strong political followings of their own, now, expertise.administrative exp
need to recognize politically important groups regions and organizations

77

Why is there tension between White House staff and department heads?

politics comes into appointments and heads of organizations adopt organizations ideas
staff- extension of president
deaprtment- expert knowledge
president wants this- staffer
be quiet youth- cabinet
I have an idea - cabinet
prez is bust - staffer

78

Does personality plat a role in explaining the presidency?

yes
Eisenhower- organized
Kennedy- bold
Johnson- deal maker
Nixon- intelligent, suspicion
Ford- chatty
Carter- detail personality outsider
Reagan- broad picture
HW Bush- hands on manger
clinton- informal
Bush- tight ship

79

Does the president need to rely on presuasion?

yes

80

What audiencse does the prez aim persuasive powers at?

wash DC leaders and politicians
party activists- partisan grassroots want pres to like roll out their agenda
the public

81

True or false; to avoid messing up, presidents tend to speak less

true

82

Why wouldn't a MoC support the president?

most secure in seats
don't need to fear bosses
can't reward or penalize MoCs

83

Are Congress members affected by prez pop?

yess
in passing lefislation
more popular, more stuff gets done
but this is just correlational (after all, big v small bill)

84

Is it easy to predict presidential popularity?

nopeee it can be influenced by factors that people don't know about

85

Doe s popularity increase or decrease with time in office

decrease highest at the beginning

86

Presidential honeymoon

president's love affair with the people and Congress can be consummated
most popular
ex. FDR

87

How would you describe the presidential power of persuasion>

qimportant but limited

88

executive privilege

the right to withhold information that Congress may want to obtain from the president or his subordinates

89

Does a bill need a president's signature to become law?

no, if it isn't signed or vetoed in ten days and Congress is in session it becomes law

90

Does the president have the power of a line item veto?

nope

91

enhanced recission

cancel parts of a spending bill without vetoeing the whole bill
but unconstitutional

92

Can Congress often overturn vetoes?

no

93

What often happens to vetoed bills?

they are revised and passed

94

Does the Constitution say whether or not the president needs to divulde private communications?

nope

95

What is the basis for executive privilege?

separation of powers
MYOB Congress
statecraft confidential advice couldn't be obtained if it would be exposed to the public
no challenge for like 200 years

96

United States v Nixon

is a basis for executive privilege but no absolute immunity
still judicial processes
can't mess up court function

97

Impoundment of Funds

prez doesn't spend money allocated

98

Clinton Law suit

prez can be sued
other officials can't claim executive privilege in defense
weakened the officials with whom prez can speak

99

Budget Reform Act of 1974

President has to spend appropriated funds unless he tells congress what he doesn't want to spend and Congress is fine with it
if he wants to delat spending, he just needs to Congress (but Congress can say no)

100

What sources will a president use to put together a program?

intrest groups
aides and campaign advisers
Federal bureaus and agencies
Outside, academic, and other specialists and experts

101

Pros and cons of using interest groups to put together a program

pro: specific plans and ideas
weakness: narrow view of pub interest

102

Pros and cons of using aides and campaign advisers to put together a program

pro test ideas for political soundness
con not too may ideas to test/not experienced in gov

103

Pros and cons of using federal bureaus and agencies to put together a program

pro know what is feasible for gov
reality princriple
con will propose plans that promote own agencies
don't know whether they will work

104

Pros and cons of using outside, academic, and other specialists and experts to put together a program

pro: many general ideas and criticisms of programs
con: won't know details of policy or what is feasible

105

What are the two ways to develop a program?

have a policy on everything
or
concentrate on a couple initiatives or themes and let others handle everything else

106

How do presidents assess opinion?

leak things and float ideas

107

What are the constraints a president faces in planning programs?

limit of time and attention span
unexpected crisis
fed gov and budget can only be changed marginally except in special cirumstances

108

Do presidents have to be selective about what they want?

yess
only so much politcal capital
have to be ready for crisis

109

What resources do the presidents have to devote most time to>?

economy and foreign affairs

110

Trustee approach

do what do what the public good requires, even with skeptical voters

111

Delegate model

do what your constituents want

112

What is another use of polls besides deciding on policy?

coming up with language to sell policies and explain it

113

What item has been on like every presidential agenda since hoover?

reorganizing executive branch

114

Why do presidents reorganize?

it easier to get something done by creating new agencies or reorganizing old ones than by abolishing programs or firing people or passing laws

115

When does Congress have to give permission for reorganization?

when it is for important ways of the larger Executive office or departments or agencies
#ReorganizationAct
wait nvm this is no longer valid

116

Does the president truly act as a president when they assume their power?

yes

117

Is the Vice Presidency a good vehicle to the presidency>

no

118

What is the Vice Presidency?

"an empty job"

119

What is the job of the VP?

preside over senate and vote in case of a tie but like Pres pro temp often presides
at best, adviser to Pres

120

What are the problems with having a secretary of state take over in line succession?

could choose own successor

121

What are the issues with having Speaker of Pro Temp?

may not have exec skill/ may be in opp party

122

25 Amend

Vp acting pres when pres is unable to do the stuff or VP and cabinet say they can't
if there is disagreement, congress decides
Vp nominates a new VP, who is confirmed by a majority vote of both houses of Congress

123

How can a president be removed?

impeached offiver convicted by a 2/3 senate vote presided by Chief Justice

124

Independent Counsel`

investigated high ranking officials

125

How do presidents deal with political problems?

move it or lose it: do things early in term
avoid details: focus on priorities
cabinets don't get much done, people do dinf capable subordinates, give them clear jobs, and watch