Flashcards in Chapter 14: The Presidency Deck (125):
One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress
The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government
The people chosen to cast each state's votes in a presidential election. Each state can cast one electoral vote for each senator and representative it has. The District of Columbia has three electoral votes, even though it cannot elect a representative or senator.
A presidents subordinates report to him through a clear chain of command headed by a chief of staff
Several of the president's assistants report directly to him
Ad hoc structure
Several subordinates, cabinet officers, and committees report directly to the president on different matters
The heads of the fifteen executive branch departments of the federal government
The president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public
A message from the president to congress stating that he will not sign a bill it has passed. Must be produced by within ten says of the bill's passage
A bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourns
An executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power
Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives
A person still in office after he or she has lost a bid for reelection
Who is the chief executive in a parliamentary system and how are they chosen?
The prime minister
they are chosen by the legislature
stay in power as long as their party has majority or their coalition holds
Who tends to be outsiders: Presidents or Prime Ministers?
want to be away form the mess in Washington
True or False: The preisdent most often chooses MoCs to be part of the cabinet
can't have sitting members hold office in exec
True or false: Prime ministers most often choose members from parliamnet
this is how they exert control over Parliament
Do presidents have guaranteed majorities in the legislature?
True or False: when the US has unified government, the pres can often get a lot done
false still lots of inability to get things done
True or False: americans say they don't like divided government
True or false: Divided governments do about as well in passing important laws, conducting important investigations, and ratifying significant treaties
Why do divided governments tend to produce as much important legislation as unified ones?
unified gov isn't real [lots of intraparty issues]
constitution set up-pres and Congress rivals for powerrrrrrrrrrrr and in policy-making
When is there [actually] unified government?
when the same ideological wing of the same party has control over both branches of gov
ex. FDR LBJ
How could we fix gridlock?
change the constituion to be parliamentary
vote in MoCs that always agree with the Pres on everything
Do people split tickets on purpose?
research is unclear
True or false: gridlock needs to of a system of representative democracy
system causes delays
requires creation of broad based coalitions
True or false: gridlock is a necessary consequence of direct democracy
direct dmeocracy is about efficiency and minimizing fuss
True or false: the framers only feared monarchy
Did ALexander Hamilton want a strong executive?
ger wanted an elective monarchy
Who wanted the executive like we have now?
What were the concerns of the framers over the presidency?
President could use militia to overpower state government
others didn't want him to become a tool of the senate
didn't want him to stay in office forever because he could like bribe perople
True or false: the framers thought elections would be thrown to the House of Representatives all the time
Why doesn't Congress elect the president?
Congress could dominate an honest or lazy prez
or a scheming prez could dominate congress
What did the framers would think would happen with the electoral college?
people would vote for like their favorite kids and their would be no majority and of course the House of Representatives would decide
How many terms can the president serve?
True or false: people were originally hostile to parties
remember Washington's farewell address
What were the important things the national gov had to do early in history?
like currency and debt
hang out with England and France
With the first presidents what was most important in appointments?
partisanship rose up but community opinion was super important
Can a president's likeness appear on a coin or currency at any time?
no ,only after death
How did Jackson's vetoes differ from earlier presidents?
they were not just based on constitutionality also policy
True or false: jackson made for a strong presidency
however, Congress reasserted power after
Who really stepped up the use of presidential powers-- especially implied ones?
Up until the new deal (from Lincoln minus WIlson and Rooselevlt) what characterized the presidency?
a negative force
just in opposition to Congress
In the past, when was the presidency powerful?
Personality or war
From Eisenhower to Reagan, who often took the lead in setting the legislative agenda?
True or False: generally, congress proposes, the presidents disposes, and the two struggle it out
Powers of the president alone
serve as commander in chier
commission officers of the armed forces
grant reprieces and pardons for deferal offenses (expect impeachment)
Convene Congress in Special sessions
take care that laws are faithfully executed
wield executive power
appoint officials to lesser offices
Powers of the President That are shared with senate
appoint ambassadors judges, and high officials
Powers of the President shared with Congress in general
Does the list of presidential powers look impressive?
ig intrepreted alone and narrowly, nope
What did Woodrow Wilson say a president needed to do to succeeed?
obey Congress and not die
What is one of the most elastically interpreted phrases in the Constitution>
duty of "take care that the laws be faithgully executed"
Where is greatest source of presidential power found>
rule of propinquity
power is wielded by people who arei n the room when a decision is made
What are the three degrees of propinquity?
White House Office, Executive Office, and the cabinet
Do members of the white house staff need to be confirmed?
Evaluation of Pyramid Structure
orderly flow of info and and decisions
may isolate prezzzz
Evaluation of Circular Method
pres gets info but there may confusion and conflict amongst others
Evaluation of ad hoc structure
flexibility and less bureaucratic inertia
can cut prez off from gov officials who are responsible for things
where are members of senior white house staff usually from?
campaign (sometimes exprets)
are special assistants to the prez high status?
Is access to the president important?
influence policy and things like that
Executive Office of The Pres
agencies report directly to the President
members may be bffs with hhim or her
Principal agencis in the executive office
Management and Budget
US Trade Representatives
What is the most important agency in the Executive Office?
Office of Management and Budget OMB
look at figures in Budget
studies the executive branch
looks at ways of getting better info
more than 500 people
nonpartisan in past
Do the president and cabinet meet all the tiem?
they used to
Who are cabinet members?
generally heads of major executive departments
What does the age of agencies affect?
Who appoints/controls more members of the Cabinet prez or PMs?
has to make up for separation of powers
Are cabinet members more representatives of the president to the agency or of the agency to the prez?
agency to the president
What are the advantages of making appointments?
What are the differences and similarities between an executive and independent agency?
similarity: can appoint to both
executive- serve at pleasure of pres, removed at discretion
independent- fixed terms of office, can only be removed for cause
holds office until senate acts on nomination
Where do cabinet officers and deputies come from?
like think tanks and wherever
some prior fed experience
generally alternate between public and private sector #revolvingdoor
in past, strong political followings of their own, now, expertise.administrative exp
need to recognize politically important groups regions and organizations
Why is there tension between White House staff and department heads?
politics comes into appointments and heads of organizations adopt organizations ideas
staff- extension of president
deaprtment- expert knowledge
president wants this- staffer
be quiet youth- cabinet
I have an idea - cabinet
prez is bust - staffer
Does personality plat a role in explaining the presidency?
Johnson- deal maker
Nixon- intelligent, suspicion
Carter- detail personality outsider
Reagan- broad picture
HW Bush- hands on manger
Bush- tight ship
Does the president need to rely on presuasion?
What audiencse does the prez aim persuasive powers at?
wash DC leaders and politicians
party activists- partisan grassroots want pres to like roll out their agenda
True or false; to avoid messing up, presidents tend to speak less
Why wouldn't a MoC support the president?
most secure in seats
don't need to fear bosses
can't reward or penalize MoCs
Are Congress members affected by prez pop?
in passing lefislation
more popular, more stuff gets done
but this is just correlational (after all, big v small bill)
Is it easy to predict presidential popularity?
nopeee it can be influenced by factors that people don't know about
Doe s popularity increase or decrease with time in office
decrease highest at the beginning
president's love affair with the people and Congress can be consummated
How would you describe the presidential power of persuasion>
qimportant but limited
the right to withhold information that Congress may want to obtain from the president or his subordinates
Does a bill need a president's signature to become law?
no, if it isn't signed or vetoed in ten days and Congress is in session it becomes law
Does the president have the power of a line item veto?
cancel parts of a spending bill without vetoeing the whole bill
Can Congress often overturn vetoes?
What often happens to vetoed bills?
they are revised and passed
Does the Constitution say whether or not the president needs to divulde private communications?
What is the basis for executive privilege?
separation of powers
statecraft confidential advice couldn't be obtained if it would be exposed to the public
no challenge for like 200 years
United States v Nixon
is a basis for executive privilege but no absolute immunity
still judicial processes
can't mess up court function
Impoundment of Funds
prez doesn't spend money allocated
Clinton Law suit
prez can be sued
other officials can't claim executive privilege in defense
weakened the officials with whom prez can speak
Budget Reform Act of 1974
President has to spend appropriated funds unless he tells congress what he doesn't want to spend and Congress is fine with it
if he wants to delat spending, he just needs to Congress (but Congress can say no)
What sources will a president use to put together a program?
aides and campaign advisers
Federal bureaus and agencies
Outside, academic, and other specialists and experts
Pros and cons of using interest groups to put together a program
pro: specific plans and ideas
weakness: narrow view of pub interest
Pros and cons of using aides and campaign advisers to put together a program
pro test ideas for political soundness
con not too may ideas to test/not experienced in gov
Pros and cons of using federal bureaus and agencies to put together a program
pro know what is feasible for gov
con will propose plans that promote own agencies
don't know whether they will work
Pros and cons of using outside, academic, and other specialists and experts to put together a program
pro: many general ideas and criticisms of programs
con: won't know details of policy or what is feasible
What are the two ways to develop a program?
have a policy on everything
concentrate on a couple initiatives or themes and let others handle everything else
How do presidents assess opinion?
leak things and float ideas
What are the constraints a president faces in planning programs?
limit of time and attention span
fed gov and budget can only be changed marginally except in special cirumstances
Do presidents have to be selective about what they want?
only so much politcal capital
have to be ready for crisis
What resources do the presidents have to devote most time to>?
economy and foreign affairs
do what do what the public good requires, even with skeptical voters
do what your constituents want
What is another use of polls besides deciding on policy?
coming up with language to sell policies and explain it
What item has been on like every presidential agenda since hoover?
reorganizing executive branch
Why do presidents reorganize?
it easier to get something done by creating new agencies or reorganizing old ones than by abolishing programs or firing people or passing laws
When does Congress have to give permission for reorganization?
when it is for important ways of the larger Executive office or departments or agencies
wait nvm this is no longer valid
Does the president truly act as a president when they assume their power?
Is the Vice Presidency a good vehicle to the presidency>
What is the Vice Presidency?
"an empty job"
What is the job of the VP?
preside over senate and vote in case of a tie but like Pres pro temp often presides
at best, adviser to Pres
What are the problems with having a secretary of state take over in line succession?
could choose own successor
What are the issues with having Speaker of Pro Temp?
may not have exec skill/ may be in opp party
Vp acting pres when pres is unable to do the stuff or VP and cabinet say they can't
if there is disagreement, congress decides
Vp nominates a new VP, who is confirmed by a majority vote of both houses of Congress
How can a president be removed?
impeached offiver convicted by a 2/3 senate vote presided by Chief Justice
investigated high ranking officials