Flashcards in Chapter 15: The Bureaucracy Deck (65):
a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials
complex- authority divided among different managers/one person isn't in charge of everything
What are the distinct features of the US bureaucracy?
1. political authority over the bureaucracy is not in one set of hands, but shared by institutions
[GB report to cabinet ministers] [in US report to exectuive and legsilative bosses, lots of media]
2. most federal agencies share power with related state agencies [lots don't work directly with people, instead with other organizations] [France is very central]
3. American institutions and traditions have created an adversary culture- personal rights are super important (lawsuits) [Sweden nothing contested]
other nations: gov owns large parts of econ
What provisions did the Constitution make for an administrative system?
just that president can appoint people who like are needed
an economic theory that government should not regulate or interfere with commerce
Pros and cons of having the pres fire officials?
keeps people in check
too much power?
Does firing power mean the pres has complete control over bureaucracy?
not even close! Congress has lots of power
What do appointed officials affect?
how laws are interpreted (ideology)
tone of administration (character)
strength of part (party affiliation)
During most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, ______ preferences often controlled appointment of officials
congressional (so generally local party members)
Uses of patronage
president could ensure subordinates supported him
reward MoCs to supprt him allowed parties to build up
What was the expansion in the nineteenth century (pre-civil war) due to>
not new roles, but higher demand for existing roles
Civil war impacts on bureaucracy
showed weaknesses of the federal gov
followed by industrialization and national economy
ICC now a big deal
What was the primary role of agencies from 1861-1901?
to serve, not regulate
still believed in limited gov and other founding values <3 laissez-faire
felt that agencies could only do what Congress told them to do (except of course, not in war)
Why do agencies expand in war?
argue they are somewhat related to war and then no one wants to go against war effort
What is today's bureaucracy a product of?
the Great Depression (and New Deal)
and World War II
huge shifts in public attitudes and constitutional interpretations about bureaucracy gov expected to do more
How did World War II change tax views?
people felt like wars had to be funded and that social programs should be supported
True or false: federal employment has remained quite stable in recent years
direct federal employment has but indirect has increased drastically
true or fals: most bureaucrats live in Washington DC
True or false: the power of the bureaucracy depends on the number of workers
The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws
How do you measure the power of a bureaucracy?
the discretionary authority of officials0 can make choices that aren't apelled out by the law
Using the discretionary authoirty test, has the power of the bureaucracy been increasing?
In what areas has COngress given agencies lots of power in?
1. paying subsidies to certain groups and organizations
2. transferring money from fed to state and local (grants-in-aid)
3. devising and enforcing regulations for various sextors of society and the economy.
What factors explain the behavior of appointed officials?
1. The manner in which they are recruited and rewarded
2. THeir personal attributes, such as their socioeconomic backgrouonds and their political attitudes
3. The nature of their jobs
4. The constraints that outside forces-- political superiors, legislators, interest groups, journalists--impose on their agencies
The government offices to which people are appointed on the basis of merit, as ascertained by a written exam or by applying certain selection criteria
What was the civil service exam designed to do?
recruit people based on merit,not patronage look at performance
True or false: people without an OPM referral can currently be hired
the OPM system was like irritating and irrelevant
needed more professionally trained people
civil rights groups wanted more diversity
What kinds of appointments are made for reasons other than or in addition to merit?
1. Presidential appointments authorized by statute (cabinet, judges...)
2. "Schedule C" appointments to jobs that are described as having a "confidential or policy-determining character" below the level of cabinet or subcanbinet posts
3. Noncareer executive assignments (NEAs) given to high ranking members of the regular competitive civil service or to persons brought into the civil service at these high levels
start moving jobs form patronage to merit
how it worked
1. public upset over spoils system (very clear because of Garfield assassination)
2. fear if dems came to power on an antispoils cloud, repubs would lose
A job that is dulled by a person whom an agency has already identified
name request job giving
Can most bureaucrats be easily fired?
instead, they get like transfered or people work to make things bad for them until they leave
Civil Service Reform Act of 198
more flexibilty in removing high ranked people
money for goodness
Advantages of career bureaucrats
experts in agencies
Disadvantages of career bureaucrats
sabotage superiors run around causing trouble
Agency point of view
most bureaucrats loyal to agency
Are political appointees and career bureaucrats reflective of the average American?
Do views vary by agency
Do most bureaucrats attempt to sabotage policies they disagree with?
Whistle Blower Protection Act
Office of Special Counsel
investigated complaints from bureaucrats
True or false: civil servants with loosely defined tasks are less likely to follow personal beliefs
Culture of the agency
informal understandings in the agency
learn about culture by learning which jobs are career enhancing and which are NCE
What is the biggest difference between a government agency and a private organization?
the number of constraints
government has TONS of procedures
What is one of the largest constraints on the bureaucracy?
Congress rarely gives any job to a single agency
What are the effects of constraints?
gov is often slow
gov will act inconsistently
may be easier to block than take action
lower ranking employess don't want to make decisions on own
citizens will complain about red tape
Where does red tape come from?
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
A network of people in Washington D.C.-based interest groups, on congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media who regularly discuss and advocate public policies
Are iron triangles common?
too many different interests
lots of subcommittees
easier for individuals to intercede
Why are some interest groups so important to agencies?
becuase they are important t oCOngress
legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency
A legislative grant of money to finance a government program or agency
Funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget
the ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passinga law
the authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place The Superme Court has held that Congress does not have this power
Congressional Supervision of the Bureaucracy
no agenct (except for like 2) can exist without Congressional approval
money can't be spend unless Congress authorizes it 9maz amount an agency can spend on a program)
money can't be spent unless also appropriated (formally set aside for a specific use)
also committees and people can mingle
Who has the real power over an agency's budget?
the Appropriations Committee
How have appropriations committees lost their power?
1. Congress has created trust funds to pay for many benefits that people receive
2. Congress has changed the authorization of many programs from permanent to multiyear or annual authorizations, limiting appropriations
3. huge budget defecits mean people want to keep spending down
What is the most visible and dramatic form of Congressional supervision?
Supreme Court and Congressional Investigations
they are good but it can't just be for exposing personal stuff and can't deprive citizens of rights
Can congress compel a person to attend an investigation?
yes by issuing a subpoena
Complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done
agencies working at cross purposes
some wants more efficient crops some want less
two gov agencies do the same thing
tendency of agencies to grow without regard to the benefits that their programs confer or the costs that they entail