Chapter 15: The Bureaucracy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: The Bureaucracy Deck (65):
1

bureaucracy

a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials
complex- authority divided among different managers/one person isn't in charge of everything

2

What are the distinct features of the US bureaucracy?

1. political authority over the bureaucracy is not in one set of hands, but shared by institutions
[GB report to cabinet ministers] [in US report to exectuive and legsilative bosses, lots of media]
2. most federal agencies share power with related state agencies [lots don't work directly with people, instead with other organizations] [France is very central]
3. American institutions and traditions have created an adversary culture- personal rights are super important (lawsuits) [Sweden nothing contested]

other nations: gov owns large parts of econ

3

What provisions did the Constitution make for an administrative system?

BARELY ANY
just that president can appoint people who like are needed

4

Laissez-faire

an economic theory that government should not regulate or interfere with commerce

5

Pros and cons of having the pres fire officials?

Pros
keeps people in check
Cons
too much power?

6

Does firing power mean the pres has complete control over bureaucracy?

not even close! Congress has lots of power

7

What do appointed officials affect?

how laws are interpreted (ideology)
tone of administration (character)
effectiveness (competence)
strength of part (party affiliation)

8

During most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, ______ preferences often controlled appointment of officials

congressional (so generally local party members)

9

Uses of patronage

president could ensure subordinates supported him
reward MoCs to supprt him allowed parties to build up

10

What was the expansion in the nineteenth century (pre-civil war) due to>

not new roles, but higher demand for existing roles

11

Civil war impacts on bureaucracy

new offices
showed weaknesses of the federal gov
followed by industrialization and national economy
ICC now a big deal

12

What was the primary role of agencies from 1861-1901?
and why?

to serve, not regulate
still believed in limited gov and other founding values <3 laissez-faire
felt that agencies could only do what Congress told them to do (except of course, not in war)

13

Why do agencies expand in war?

argue they are somewhat related to war and then no one wants to go against war effort
think reindeer

14

What is today's bureaucracy a product of?

the Great Depression (and New Deal)
and World War II

huge shifts in public attitudes and constitutional interpretations about bureaucracy gov expected to do more

15

How did World War II change tax views?

people felt like wars had to be funded and that social programs should be supported

16

True or false: federal employment has remained quite stable in recent years

direct federal employment has but indirect has increased drastically

17

true or fals: most bureaucrats live in Washington DC

false

18

True or false: the power of the bureaucracy depends on the number of workers

false

19

discretionary authority

The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws

20

How do you measure the power of a bureaucracy?

the discretionary authority of officials0 can make choices that aren't apelled out by the law

21

Using the discretionary authoirty test, has the power of the bureaucracy been increasing?

yes

22

In what areas has COngress given agencies lots of power in?

1. paying subsidies to certain groups and organizations
2. transferring money from fed to state and local (grants-in-aid)
3. devising and enforcing regulations for various sextors of society and the economy.

23

What factors explain the behavior of appointed officials?

1. The manner in which they are recruited and rewarded
2. THeir personal attributes, such as their socioeconomic backgrouonds and their political attitudes
3. The nature of their jobs
4. The constraints that outside forces-- political superiors, legislators, interest groups, journalists--impose on their agencies

24

competitive service

The government offices to which people are appointed on the basis of merit, as ascertained by a written exam or by applying certain selection criteria

25

What was the civil service exam designed to do?

recruit people based on merit,not patronage look at performance

26

True or false: people without an OPM referral can currently be hired

true

because
the OPM system was like irritating and irrelevant
needed more professionally trained people
civil rights groups wanted more diversity

27

What kinds of appointments are made for reasons other than or in addition to merit?

1. Presidential appointments authorized by statute (cabinet, judges...)
2. "Schedule C" appointments to jobs that are described as having a "confidential or policy-determining character" below the level of cabinet or subcanbinet posts
3. Noncareer executive assignments (NEAs) given to high ranking members of the regular competitive civil service or to persons brought into the civil service at these high levels

28

Pendleton Act

start moving jobs form patronage to merit

how it worked
1. public upset over spoils system (very clear because of Garfield assassination)
2. fear if dems came to power on an antispoils cloud, repubs would lose

29

name-request job

A job that is dulled by a person whom an agency has already identified

30

Buddy-system

name request job giving

31

Can most bureaucrats be easily fired?

no
instead, they get like transfered or people work to make things bad for them until they leave

32

Civil Service Reform Act of 198

more flexibilty in removing high ranked people
money for goodness

33

Advantages of career bureaucrats

experts in agencies
continuity

34

Disadvantages of career bureaucrats

sabotage superiors run around causing trouble

35

Agency point of view

most bureaucrats loyal to agency

36

Are political appointees and career bureaucrats reflective of the average American?

no

37

Do views vary by agency

yes

38

Do most bureaucrats attempt to sabotage policies they disagree with?

no

39

Whistle Blower Protection Act

Office of Special Counsel
investigated complaints from bureaucrats

40

True or false: civil servants with loosely defined tasks are less likely to follow personal beliefs

false
more likely

41

Culture of the agency

informal understandings in the agency
learn about culture by learning which jobs are career enhancing and which are NCE

42

What is the biggest difference between a government agency and a private organization?

the number of constraints
government has TONS of procedures

43

What is one of the largest constraints on the bureaucracy?

Congress rarely gives any job to a single agency

44

What are the effects of constraints?

gov is often slow
gov will act inconsistently
may be easier to block than take action
lower ranking employess don't want to make decisions on own
citizens will complain about red tape

45

Where does red tape come from?

the people

46

iron triangle

a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group

47

issue network

A network of people in Washington D.C.-based interest groups, on congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media who regularly discuss and advocate public policies

48

Are iron triangles common?

nope
too many different interests
lots of subcommittees
easier for individuals to intercede

49

Why are some interest groups so important to agencies?

becuase they are important t oCOngress

50

authorization legislation

legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency

51

appropriation

A legislative grant of money to finance a government program or agency

52

trust funds

Funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget

53

committee clearance

the ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passinga law

54

legislative veto

the authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place The Superme Court has held that Congress does not have this power

55

Congressional Supervision of the Bureaucracy

no agenct (except for like 2) can exist without Congressional approval
money can't be spend unless Congress authorizes it 9maz amount an agency can spend on a program)
money can't be spent unless also appropriated (formally set aside for a specific use)
also committees and people can mingle

56

Who has the real power over an agency's budget?

the Appropriations Committee

57

How have appropriations committees lost their power?

1. Congress has created trust funds to pay for many benefits that people receive
2. Congress has changed the authorization of many programs from permanent to multiyear or annual authorizations, limiting appropriations
3. huge budget defecits mean people want to keep spending down

58

What is the most visible and dramatic form of Congressional supervision?

congressional investigation

59

Supreme Court and Congressional Investigations

they are good but it can't just be for exposing personal stuff and can't deprive citizens of rights

60

Can congress compel a person to attend an investigation?

yes by issuing a subpoena

61

Red tape

Complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done

62

conflict pathology

agencies working at cross purposes
some wants more efficient crops some want less

63

Duplication Pathology

two gov agencies do the same thing

64

Imperialism ppathology

tendency of agencies to grow without regard to the benefits that their programs confer or the costs that they entail

65

Waster pathology

spending more than is necessart to but some product or service