Chapter 15-16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15-16 Deck (49):
1

Receptors containing specialized cells that monitor specific conditions and passes information to the CNS when stimulated

Sensory Receptors

2

Deliver somatic and visceral sensory information to their final destinations inside
the CNS using nerves, nuclei and tracts

Sensory Pathways

3

Parts of the Afferent Division of the Nervous System

– Receptors
– Sensory neurons
– Sensory pathways

4

Parts of the Efferent Division of the Nervous System

– Nuclei
– Motor tracts
– Motor neurons

5

Senses that describe our sensitivity to temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration, and proprioception

General Senses

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Senses that describe our olfaction, vision, gustation, equlibrium and hearing

Special Senses

7

Receptors that are always active show little peripheral adaptation and are slow-adapting receptors (ex: remind you of an injury long after the initial damage has occurred)

Tonic receptors

8

Receptors that are normally inactive but become active for a short time whenever a change occurs; they provide information about the intensity and rate of change of a stimulus and are fast-adapting receptors

Phasic receptors

9

Four types of General Sensory Receptors

1. Nociceptors (pain)
2. Thermoreceptors (temperature)
3. Mechanoreceptors (physical stimulation)
4. Chemoreceptors (chemical concentration)

10

common sensory receptors that are found in the superficial portions of the skin, joint capsules and around the walls of blood vessels

Nociceptors (Pain Receptors)

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Two types of axons found in nociceptors

Type A and Type C fibers

12

Also called temperature receptors, these are free nerve endings located in:
• The dermis
• Skeletal muscles
• The liver
• The hypothalamus
They are conducted along the same pathways that carry pain
sensations

Thermoreceptors

13

Sensory receptors that are sensitive to stimuli that distort their plasma membranes and contain mechanically gated ion channels whose gates open or close in response to stretching, compression, twisting and other distortions

Mechanoreceptors

14

Three Classes of Mechanoreceptors

Tactile receptors
Baroreceptors
Proprioceptors

15

Type of receptor that provide the sensations of touch, pressure, and vibration

Tactile receptors

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Type of receptor that detect pressure changes in the walls of blood vessels and in portions of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts

Baroreceptors

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Type of receptor that monitor the positions of joints and muscles and are the most structurally and functionally complex of general sensory receptors

Proprioceptors

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Sensory receptors that respond to water-soluble and lipid-soluble substances dissolved in surrounding fluid and exhibit peripheral adaptation over
period of seconds; they monitor pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in blood

Chemoreceptors

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Sensory pathway that provides conscious sensations of poorly localized (“crude”) touch, pressure, pain, and temperature

The Spinothalamic Pathway

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Sensory pathway that carries sensations of highly localized (“fine”) touch,
pressure, vibration, and proprioception

Posterior Column Pathway

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Sensory pathway where cerebellum receives proprioceptive information about position of skeletal muscles, tendons and joints

The Spinocerebellar Pathway

22

Three integrated motor pathways

1. Corticospinal pathway (voluntary muscular control)
2. Medial pathway (trunk and proximal limb muscles)
3. Lateral pathway (distal limb muscles precise moves)

23

Reflexes that provide rapid,
involuntary, preprogrammed responses that preserve homeostasis over short term

Spinal and cranial reflexes

24

Reflexes that control the most basic motor activities

Cranial and spinal reflexes

25

Functions of the Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

– Operates under conscious control
– Seldom affects long-term survival
– SNS controls skeletal muscles

26

Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

– Operates without conscious instruction
– ANS controls visceral (organ) effectors
– Coordinates system functions
(Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive)

27

What are the visceral motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord known as?

preganglionic neurons

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two divisions of ANS

1. Sympathetic division
2. Parasympathetic division

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Division that increases alertness, metabolic rate, and muscular abilities; metabolic rate and promotes digestion

Sympathetic division

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Division that reduces metabolic rate, promotes digestion, and controls during resting conditions

Parasympathetic division

31

Describe the relationship between the sympathetic and parasympathetic division

1. Have opposing effects
• If the sympathetic division causes excitation, the
parasympathetic causes inhibition
2. The two divisions may also work independently
• Only one division innervates some structures
3. The two divisions may work together, with each controlling one stage of a complex process

32

Seven Responses to Increased
Sympathetic Activity

1. Heightened mental alertness
2. Increased metabolic rate
3. Reduced digestive and urinary functions
4. Energy reserves activated
5. Increased respiratory rate and respiratory
passageways dilate
6. Increased heart rate and blood pressure
7. Sweat glands activated

33

Five Responses to Increased
Parasympathetic Activity

1. Decreased metabolic rate
2. Decreased heart rate and blood pressure
3. Increased secretion by salivary and digestive glands
4. Increased motility and blood flow in digestive tract
5. Urination and defecation stimulation

34

Cells that secrete neurotransmitters epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)

Neuroendocrine cells

35

Release neurotransmitters at specific organs

Ganglionic Neurons

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Release nitric oxide (NO) as neurotransmitter causing neurons to innervate smooth muscles in walls of
blood vessels in skeletal muscles and the brain and produce vasodilation and increased blood flow

Nitroxidergic synapses

37

What happens when the Sympathetic Preganglionic
Neurons are stimulated?

– Releases ACh at synapses with ganglionic
neurons
– Excitatory effect on ganglionic neurons

38

Major Effects of Parasympathetic Division

– Constriction of the pupils
– Secretion by digestive glands
– Secretion of hormones
– Increase in smooth muscle activity
– Stimulation and coordination of defecation
– Contraction of the urinary bladder during urination
– Constriction of the respiratory passageways
– Reduction in heart rate and in the force of contraction

39

Effect of the Parasympathetic division on heart function

Acetylcholine released by postganglionic fibers slows heart rate

40

Effect of the Sympathetic division on heart function

NE released by varicosities accelerates heart rate

41

Memories that are specific bits of information

Fact memories

42

Memories that learned motor behaviors and are incorporated at unconscious level with repetition

Skill memories

43

Memories that are that can be recalled immediately and contain small bits of information; these are also known as primary memories

Short-term memories

44

conversion from shortterm
to long-term memory

Memory consolidation

45

Two types of long-term memory

1. Secondary memories fade and require effort to
recall
2. Tertiary memories are with you for life

46

Receptors linked to consolidation that are activated by neurotransmitter glutamate

NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) Receptors

47

Disease caused by Destruction of ACh-secreting and GABAsecreting neurons in basal nuclei and results to difficulty controlling movements and gradual decline of intellectual abilities

Huntington’s Disease

48

Powerful hallucinogenic drug that activates serotonin receptors in brain stem,
hypothalamus, and limbic system

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

49

Disease caused by inadequate dopamine production which causes motor problems

Parkinson’s Disease