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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (62):
1

Five primary functions of the Skeletal System

1. Support
2. Storage of Minerals (calcium) and Lipids (yellow
marrow)
3. Blood Cell Production (red marrow)
4. Protection
5. Leverage (force of motion)

2

Small, irregular bones that are found between the flat bones of the skull

Sutural Bones

3

Bones that have complex shapes
• Examples: spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones

Irregular Bones

4

Bones that are small and thick
• Examples: ankle and wrist bones

Short Bones

5

Bones that are thin with parallel surfaces and are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae

Flat Bones

6

Bones that are Long and thin and are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes

Long Bones

7

Bones that are Small and flat and develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands,
and feet

Sesamoid Bones

8

Term for bone markings that are found along bone surface

Depressions or grooves

9

Term for bone markings that are found where tendons and ligaments attach and at articulations with other bones

Elevations or projections

10

Term for bone markings that are found where blood and nerves enter bone

Tunnels

11

The shaft of the long bone that is made of a heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone

Diaphysis

12

What is the central space in the diaphysis called?

medullary (marrow) cavity

13

Wide part at each end of the long bone that articulates with other bones; It is mostly spongy (cancellous) bone and covered with compact bone (cortex)

Epiphysis

14

Structure where diaphysis and epiphysis meet

Metaphysis

15

What is the layer of spongy bone between
the compact bone found within the cranium?

diploë

16

Structure that has dense, supportive connective tissue and contains specialized cells that produce solid matrix of calcium salt deposits

Bone (Osseous) Tissue

17

This structure forms pathways for blood vessels and exchanges nutrients and wastes

Canaliculi

18

This structure covers outer surfaces of bones and consists of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers

Periosteum

19

The bone matrix is composed of two thirds of what compound?

calcium phosphate,
Ca3(PO4)2

20

The bone matrix is composed of one third of what compound?

protein fibers (collagen)

21

Calcium phosphate reacts with calcium hydroxide in the bone matrix to form crystals of?

hydroxyapatite

22

four types of cells of bones

1. Osteocytes
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteoprogenitor cells
4. Osteoclasts

23

Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix and live in lacunae and are between layers (lamellae) of matrix

Osteocytes

24

Two major functions of osteocytes

1. To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
2. To help repair damaged bone

25

Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds
(osteogenesis)

Osteoblasts

26

matrix produced by osteoblasts, but not
yet calcified to form bone

Osteoid

27

Osteoblasts surrounded by bone become what type of cells?

osteocytes

28

Mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce
osteoblasts and are located in endosteum. They assist in fracture repair

Osteoprogenitor Cells

29

Giant, multinucleate cells that secrete acids and protein-digesting enzyme which dissolves bone matrix and release stored minerals
(osteolysis)

Osteoclasts

30

basic unit of a compact bone

Osteon

31

These structures are perpendicular to the central canal and carry blood vessels into bone and marrow

Perforating canals

32

Describe the characteristics of a spongy bone.

• Does not have osteons
• The matrix forms an open network of trabeculae
• Trabeculae have no blood vessels
• The space between trabeculae is filled with red bone marrow
• In some bones, spongy bone holds yellow bone marrow

33

Found in the space between trabeculae that forms red blood cells and supplies nutrients to osteocytes

red bone marrow

34

Why is the yellow bone marrow 'yellow'?

because it stores fat

35

collagen fibers of the periosteum

Perforating fibers

36

Functions of Periosteum

1. Isolates bone from surrounding tissues
2. Provides a route for circulatory and nervous supply
3. Participates in bone growth and repair

37

Incomplete cellular layer in the compact bone that lines the medullary (marrow) cavity; It covers trabeculae of spongy bone, lines central canals, contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and
osteoclasts and are active in bone growth and repair

Endosteum

38

Bone formation is called?

Osteogenesis

39

The process of replacing other tissues with bone

Ossification

40

The process of depositing calcium salts which occurs during bone ossification and in other tissues

Calcification

41

Two main forms of ossification

1. Endochondral ossification
2. Intramembranous ossification

42

Form of ossification where it ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilage

Endochondral Ossification

43

Form of ossification where it occurs in the dermis and produces dermal bones such as mandible (lower jaw)
and clavicle (collarbone)

Intramembranous Ossification

44

Intramembranous Ossification is also called?

dermal ossification

45

A single pair of large blood vessels that enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen

Nutrient Artery and Vein

46

Blood vessels that supply the epiphyseal cartilage

Metaphyseal Vessels

47

Blood vessels that supply blood to superficial osteons

Periosteal Vessels

48

If deposition is greater than removal, bones get ________

stronger

49

If removal is faster than replacement, bones get
_________

weaker

50

Effects of Exercise on Bone

• Mineral recycling allows bones to adapt to stress
• Heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger

51

Hormone made in the kidneys that helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from
digestive tract; it is synthesized from vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)

hormone calcitriol

52

Vitamin required for collagen synthesis, and
stimulation of osteoblast differentiation

Vitamin C

53

Vitamin that stimulates osteoblast activity

Vitamin A

54

Vitamins that help synthesize bone proteins

Vitamins K and B12

55

Hormones that stimulate bone growth

Growth hormone and thyroxine

56

Hormones that stimulate osteoblasts

Estrogens and androgens

57

Hormones that regulate calcium
and phosphate levels

Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

58

Hormone produced by parathyroid glands in neck which increases calcium ion levels

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

59

How does PTH increase calcium ion levels?

by:
1. Stimulating osteoclasts
2. Increasing intestinal absorption of calcium
3. Decreasing calcium excretion at kidneys

60

Secreted by C cells (parafollicular cells) in thyroid that decreases calcium ion

Calcitonin

61

How does Calcitonin decreases calcium ion levels?

by:
1. Inhibiting osteoclast activity
2. Increasing calcium excretion at kidneys

62

Four steps of fracture repair

1. Bleeding
2. Cells of the endosteum and periosteum
3. Osteoblasts
4. Osteoblasts and osteocytes remodel the fracture for
up to a year