Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

A&P I - Dr Lian > Chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (87):
1

What causes the decrease of speed and efficiency of tissue repair with age?

Caused by:
• Slower rate of energy consumption (metabolism)
• Hormonal alterations
• Reduced physical activity

2

the largest system of the body

Integument

3

Two parts that make up the itegument

1. Cutaneous membrane
(skin)
2. Accessory structures

4

Two components of the cutaneous membrane

Outer epidermis and inner dermis

5

Structures that originate in the dermis and extend through the epidermis to skin surface

Accessory Structures

6

Consists of loose connective tissue and found below the dermis

Hypodermis
(Superficial Fascia or
Subcutaneous
Layer)

7

What are the functions of skin?

• Protection of underlying tissues and organs
• Excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes (glands)
• Maintenance of body temperature (insulation and
evaporation)
• Production of melanin
• Production of keratin
• Synthesis of vitamin D3
• Storage of lipids
• Detection of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature

8

avascular stratified squamous epithelium

Epidermis

9

Contain large amounts of keratin and are the most abundant cells in the epidermis

Keratinocytes

10

Covers most of the body and has four layers of keratinocytes

Thin Skin

11

Covers the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
and has five layers of keratinocytes

Thick Skin

12

What are the five
strata of keratinocytes in thick skin?

1. Stratum basale
2. Stratum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum
5. Stratum corneum

13

Stratum that is attached to basement membrane by
hemidesmosomes (junctional anchoring proteins) and forms epidermal ridges; it has many basal or germinative cells

Stratum Basale

14

Function to increasethe area of basement membrane and strengthen the attachment between epidermis and dermis

Dermal papillae

15

Specialized cell of stratum basale that are found in hairless skin and respond to touch

Merkel cells

16

Specialized cell of stratum basale that contain the pigment melanin and are scattered throughout stratum basale

Melanocytes

17

Stratum that is produced by division of stratum basale and has eight to ten layers of keratinocytes bound by
desmosomes; their cells shrink until cytoskeletons stick out

Stratum Spinosum
— the “spiny layer”

18

What cells are present in stratum spinosum that are active in immune response?

dendritic (antigen presenting) cells

19

Stratum that stops dividing, and starts producing keratin and keratohyalin

Stratum Granulosum
— the “grainy layer”

20

A tough, fibrous protein that makes up hair and nails

Keratin

21

Dense granules that cross-link keratin fibers

Keratohyalin

22

Stratum that is found only in thick skin and covers stratum granulosum

Stratum Lucidum
— the “clear layer”

23

Stratum that is the exposed surface of skin and has
15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells; it is water resistant and sheds and is replaced every 2 weeks

Stratum Corneum
— the “horn layer”

24

This is the formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin that occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except eyes

Keratinization

25

Type of perspiration where the interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through the stratum corneum

Insensible perspiration

26

Type of perspiration where water is excreted by sweat glands

Sensible perspiration

27

Where does dehydration results from?

• From damage to stratum corneum (e.g., burns and
blisters
[insensible perspiration])
• From immersion in hypertonic solution (e.g.,
seawater [osmosis])

28

Where does hydration results from?

Results from immersion in hypotonic solution (e.g.,
freshwater [osmosis]) which causes swelling of epithelial cells

29

Pigments that influence skin color

1. Carotene
2. Melanin

30

Orange-yellow pigment that is found in orange vegetables and accumulates in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the
dermis; it can be converted to vitamin A

Carotene

31

Yellow-brown or black pigment that are produced by melanocytes in stratum basale; they are stored in transport vesicles (
melanosomes and are transferred to keratinocytes

Melanin

32

What is the function of melanocytes?

Produces melanin which protects skin from sun damage/UV radiation

33

How does oxygenated blood contribute to skin color?

• Blood vessels dilate from heat, skin reddens
• Blood flow decreases, skin pales

34

Bluish skin tint caused by severe reduction in blood flow or oxygenation

Cyanosis

35

Illness caused by buildup of bile produced by liver and produces a yellow skin color

Jaundice

36

Illness caused by the Excess Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Pituitary tumor

37

A disease of the pituitary gland (insufficient ster
oid hormones) that causes skin darkening and other nonspecific symptoms

Addison’s disease

38

Disease caused by loss of melanocytes, resulting to loss of color

Vitiligo

39

Illness caused by insufficient vitamin D3

rickets

40

Liver and kidneys convert vitamin D3 into what?

calcitriol

41

Function of calcitriol

Aids absorption of calcium and phosphorus

42

Powerful peptide growth factor that produced by glands (salivary and duodenum); they are used in laboratories to grow skin grafts

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

43

Functions of EGF

• Promotes division of germinative cells
• Accelerates keratin production
• Stimulates epidermal repair
• Stimulates glandular secretion

44

Located between epidermis and subcutaneous layer and anchors epidermal accessory structures

Dermis

45

two components of the dermis

1. Outer papillary layer
2. Deep reticular layer

46

Layer that consists of areolar tissue and contains smaller capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons; it has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges

Papillary Layer

47

Layer that consists of dense irregular connective tissue and contains larger blood vessels, lymphatic vessels,
nerve fibers, collagen and elastic fibers and connective tissue proper

Reticular Layer

48

An inflammation of the papillary layer caused by infection, radiation, mechanical irritation,
or chemicals (e.g., poison ivy); it is characterized by itch or pain

Dermatitis

49

Two types of fibers in the dermis that permit strength and elasticity

Collagen fibers and elastic fibers

50

Fibers that are very strong, resist stretching but bend easily and provide flexibility

Collagen fibers

51

Fibers that permit stretching and then recoil to original length and
limit the flexibility of collagen fibers to prevent damage to tissue

Elastic fibers

52

A network of arteries along the reticular layer

Cutaneous plexus

53

Capillary network from small arteries in papillary
layer

Papillary plexus

54

Capillary return deep to the papillary plexus

Venous plexus

55

Damage to blood vessels resulting in “black-and-blue” bruising

Contusion

56

Where are the tactile corpuscles located at?

dermal papillae

57

Where are the
lamellated corpuscles located at?

reticular layer

58

Layer that lies below the integument stabilizes the skin and allows separate movement; it is made of elastic areolar and adipose tissues

Hypodermis
(Subcutaneous Layer)

59

The human body is covered with hair,
except for which areas?

• Palms
•Soles
•Lips
•Portions of external genitalia

60

Functions of hair

• Protects and insulates
• Guards openings against particles and insects

61

Located deep in dermis and
produces nonliving hairs; they are wrapped in a dense connective tissue sheath where the base is surrounded by sensory nerves

Hair Follicle

62

Lower part of the hair that is attached to the integument

Hair root

63

Upper part of the hair that is
not attached to the integument

Hair shaft

64

produces hair matrix

hair bulb

65

A layer of dividing basal cells that produces hair structure and pushes hair up and out of skin

hair matrix

66

The central core of the hair shaft

Medulla

67

The middle layer of the hair shaft

Cortex

68

The surface layer of the hair shaft

Cuticle

69

Medulla contains flexible
________ keratin while cortex and cuticle contain __________ keratin

soft, stiff hard

70

Type of hair that is soft, fine
and covers body surface

Vellus hairs

71

Type of hair that is heavy and pigmented and found in head, eyebrows, and eyelashes

Terminal hairs

72

Holocrine glands that secrete sebum

Sebaceous Glands
(oil glands)

73

Two types of sweat glands

1. Apocrine glands
2. Merocrine (eccrine) glands

74

Sweat glands found in armpits, around nipples, and groin; they secrete products into hair follicles and produce sticky, cloudy secretions; they break down and cause odors

Apocrine sweat glands

75

cells that surround the apocrine gland and squeeze apocrine gland secretions onto skin surface

myoepithelial cells

76

Sweat glands Widely distributed on body surface especially on palms and soles; they are coiled, tubular glands that discharge directly onto skin surface; produces sensible perspiration

Merocrine (Eccrine) Sweat Glands

77

Functions of merocrine sweat gland activity

• Cools skin
• Excretes water and electrolytes
• Flushes microorganisms and harmful chemicals from skin

78

integumentary gland that produce milk

Mammary glands

79

integumentary gland that produce cerumen (earwax)

Ceruminous glands

80

Nervous system that controls sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands and
works simultaneously over entire body

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

81

What is the main function of sensible perspiration?

Thermoregulation

82

Structure that is made of dead cells packed with keratin and protect fingers and toes

Nails

83

Where does nail production occurs?

nail root

84

The visible portion of the nail that covers the
nail bed

Nail body

85

The pale crescent at the base of the nail

Lunula

86

How is the integument repaired following an injury?

• Bleeding occurs
• Mast cells trigger inflammatory response
• A scab stabilizes and protects the area
• Germinative cells migrate around the wound
• Macrophages clean the area
• Fibroblasts and endothelial cells move in, producing granulation tissue

87

Which cells produce scar tissue?

Fibroblasts