Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (47):
1

Largest part of brain that controls higher mental functions
and is divided into left and right
cerebral hemispheres

Cerebrum

2

The cerebrum's surface has a layer of gray or white matter? (neural cortex)

gray matter

3

Second largest part of brain that coordinates repetitive body movements and is covered with
cerebellar cortex

Cerebellum

4

functions of cerebrum

• Conscious thought processes, intellectual functions
• Memory storage and processing
• Conscious and subconscious regulation
of skeletal muscle contractions

5

functions of cerebellum

• Coordinates complex
somatic motor patterns
• Adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord

6

Major endocrine gland connected to hypothalamus that interfaces nervous and endocrine systems

Pituitary gland

7

Structure that processes information between spinal cord and cerebrum or cerebellum

Brain Stem

8

What structures are found near the brain stem?

midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata

9

Structure that processes sight, sound, and associated reflexes

Midbrain

10

Structure that connects cerebellum to brain stem

pons

11

Structure that regulates autonomic functions, heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion

Medulla oblongata

12

The origin of brain that was differentiated from neural ectoderm

Neural tube

13

Which arteries deliver blood supply to the brain?

internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries

14

Structures that provide physical protection of the brain

• Bones of the cranium
• Cranial meninges
• Cerebrospinal fluid

15

Type of disease that shuts off blood to portion of brain, resulting to the death of neurons

Stroke or
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

16

Formed by special ependymal cells, this structure surrounds capillaries of choroid plexus,
limits movement of compounds transferred, and allows chemical composition of blood and CSF to
differ

Blood–CSF Barrier

17

Function of the blood–brain barrier and blood–CSF barrier

Selectively isolate brain from chemicals in blood that
might disrupt neural function

18

This protects the brain against sudden movement and provides nutrients and removes wastes

Cerebrospinal fluid

19

Centers that control peripheral systems

Reflex centers

20

Reflex center that control blood flow through peripheral tissues

Cardiovascular centers

21

Reflex center that set pace for respiratory movements

Respiratory rhythmicity centers

22

Large, branched cells that are
found in cerebellar cortex and receive input from up to 200,000 synapses

Purkinje cells

23

Highly branched, internal white matter of cerebellum where the cerebellar nuclei is embedded; It relays information to Purkinje cells

Arbor vitae
(“tree of life”)

24

Damage from trauma or stroke
that results to Intoxication (temporary impairment) and disturbance of muscle coordination

`Ataxia

25

Disease signified by detection of abnormal prion
protein

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

26

Eight Functions of the Hypothalamus

1. Provides subconscious control of skeletal muscle
2. Controls autonomic function
3. Coordinates activities of nervous and endocrine
systems
4. Secretes hormones
5. Produces emotions and behavioral drives (thirst and hunger)
6. Coordinates voluntary and autonomic functions
7. Regulates body temperature
8. Controls circadian rhythms (day–night cycles)

27

What hormones does the hypothalamus secrete?

• Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – water retention
• Oxytocin (OT; OXT)

28

functional grouping that:
• Establishes emotional states
• Links conscious functions of cerebral cortex with
autonomic functions of brain stem
• Facilitates memory storage and retrieval

Limbic System

29

Components of the Limbic System in the Diencephalon

-Anterior group of thalamic nuclei
-Hypothalamus
-Mamillary body

30

Components of the Limbic
System in the Cerebrum

-Cingulate gyrus (superior portion of limbic lobe)
-Parahippocampal gyrus (inferior portion of limbic lobe)
-Hippocampus

31

Three Functional Principles of the Cerebrum

1. Each cerebral hemisphere receives sensory
information from, and sends motor commands to,
the opposite side of the body
2. The two hemispheres have different functions,
although their structures are alike
3. Correspondence between a specific function and a
specific region of cerebral cortex is not precise

32

Special sensory cortex that receives information from sight receptors

Visual cortex

33

Special sensory cortex that receives information from sound receptors

Auditory cortex

34

Special sensory cortex that receives information from odor receptors

Olfactory cortex

35

Special sensory cortex that receives information from taste receptors

Gustatory cortex

36

Integrative area that is associated with general interpretive area and coordinates all vocalization functions

Speech center

37

Integrative area that integrates information from sensory association areas and performs abstract intellectual activities (e.g., predicting consequences of actions)

Prefrontal cortex
of frontal lobe

38

left brain (dominant hemisphere) controls:

• Reading, writing, and math
• Decision making
• Speech and language

39

Right cerebral hemisphere relates to:

• Senses (touch, smell, sight, taste, feel)
• Recognition (faces, voice inflections)

40

Four Categories of Brain Waves

1. Alpha waves
2. Beta waves
3. Theta waves
4. Delta waves

41

Brain waves found in healthy, awake adults at rest with eyes
closed

Alpha Waves

42

Brain waves found in adults concentrating or mentally stressed and has a higher frequency

Beta Waves

43

Brain waves found in children, intensely frustrated adults and may indicate brain disorder in adults

Theta Waves

44

Brain waves found in awake adults with brain damage and during sleep

Delta Waves

45

Is a temporary cerebral disorder that changes the electroencephalogram;
Symptoms depend on regions affected

Seizure

46

Optic nerve structure found where sensory fibers converge and cross to opposite side of brain

Optic chiasm

47

Optic nerve structure found leading to lateral geniculate nuclei and are made of reorganized axons

Optic tracts