Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

A&P I - Dr Lian > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (94):
1

type of cells that are reproductive cells; consist of the male sperm and female oocyte

sex cells

2

all body cells except sex cells

somatic cells

3

comprises of the cytosol and the organelles;

cytoplasm

4

Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organization of
microtubules in
cytoskeleton

centrosome and centrioles

5

Proteins organized in fine filaments or slender tubes and functions in strength and support, and movement of cellular structures and materials

cytoskeleton

6

Lipid bilayer containing phospholipids, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates; Functions in isolation, protection, sensitivity, support, and control of entry
and exit of
materials

plasma membrane

7

Membrane extensions
containing microfilaments which functions to increase surface area to facilitate
absorption of extra-cellular
materials

microvilli

8

Long extensions
containing microtubule doublets in a 9 + 2 array and functions in movement of material over cell surface

cilia

9

Hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at their ends; Functions in breakdown and recycling of
damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins

proteasomes

10

RNA + proteins;
bound to rough endoplasmic
reticulum or scattered in cytoplasm; functions in protein synthesis

ribosomes

11

Stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae) containing chambers; functions in storage, alteration, and packaging
of secretory products and
lysosomal enzymes

Golgi apparatus

12

Double membrane, with inner membrane folds (cristae) enclosing important metabolic enzymes;
Produce 95% of the ATP
required by the cell

mitochondria

13

Modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins

rough ER

14

Synthesizes lipids and
carbohydrates

smooth ER

15

Vesicles containing
degradative enzymes which functions in catabolism of fats and other organic compounds, neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process

peroxisomes

16

Vesicles containing
digestive enzymes which functions in intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens

lysosomes

17

Nucleoplasm containing
nucleotides, enzymes,
nucleoproteins, and
chromatin; surrounded by a
double membrane,
the nuclear envelope.
This structure controls metabolism, storages and processes genetic information and controls protein synthesis

nucleus

18

site of rRNA synthesis and
assembly of ribosomal
subunits

Nucleolus

19

A watery medium that surrounds a cell

Extracellular Fluid (Interstitial Fluid)

20

What is the phospholipid bilayer made of?

Hydrophilic heads and Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails

21

Membrane protein within the membrane

Integral Protein

22

Membrane protein bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane

Peripheral Proteins

23

Membrane protein that attaches h to inside or outside structures

Anchoring Proteins
(stabilizers)

24

Membrane protein that label cells as normal or abnormal

Recognition Proteins (identifiers)

25

Membrane proteins that catalyzes reactions

Enzymes

26

Membrane proteins that bind and respond to
ligands
(ions, hormones)

Receptor Proteins

27

Membrane proteins that transport specific solutes through membrane

Carrier Proteins

28

Membrane proteins that regulate water flow and solutes through
membrane

Protein Channels

29

Sticky "sugar coat" that is formed by proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids

glycocalyx

30

Functions of the glycocalyx

• Lubrication and Protection
• Anchoring and Locomotion
• Specificity in Binding
(receptors)
• Recognition
(immune response)

31

Type of organelles that have no membrane and has direct contact with cytosol

Nonmembranous organelles

32

Examples of nonmembranous organelles

cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and proteasomes

33

Type of organelles that are covered with plasma membrane and isolated from cytosol

Membranous organelles

34

Examples of membranous organelles

endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus,
lysosomes, peroxisomes,
and mitochondria

35

three structural proteins that make up the cytoskeleton

• Microfilaments
• Intermediate filaments
• Microtubules

36

thin filaments composed of the protein actin; they provide additional mechanical strength and
Interact with proteins for consistency;
Pair with thick filaments of
myosinfor muscle movement

Microfilaments

37

mid-sized filaments in comparison to microfilaments and thick filaments; they are
durable (collagen) and they
strengthen cell and maintain shape, stabilize organelles and stabilize cell position

Intermediate filaments

38

large, hollow tubes of
tubulin
protein that
• Attach to
centrosome
• Strengthen cell and anchor organelles
• Change cell shape
• Move vesicles within cell (kinesin and dynein)
• Form
spindle apparatus

Microtubules

39

Filaments composed of myosin protein in muscle cells

Thick filaments

40

Ribosomes in cytoplams that manufacture proteins for cell

Free ribosomes

41

Ribosomes attached to
ER that manufacture proteins for secretion

Fixed ribosomes

42

Functions of Smooth ER

• Synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates
• Phospholipids and cholesterol (membranes)
• Steroid hormones (reproductive system)
• Glycerides (storage in liver and fat cells)
• Glycogen (storage in muscles)

43

Functions of Rough ER

• Active in protein and glycoprotein synthesis
• Folds polypeptide protein structures
• Encloses products in
transport vesicles

44

Type of lysosome formed by Golgi apparatus and inactive enzymes

Primary lysosome

45

Lysosome fused with damaged organelle which activates digestive enzymes and isolates toxic chemicals

Secondary lysosome

46

Functions of lysosomes

1. Clean up inside cells
2. Autolysis

47

Self-destruction of damaged cells

Autolysis

48

Double membrane around the nucleus

Nuclear envelope

49

Space between the two layers of the nuclear envelope

Perinuclear space

50

Communication passages in the nucleus

Nuclear pores

51

Fluid containing ions, enzymes, nucleotides, and
some RNA

Nucleoplasm

52

Support filaments in the nucleus

Nuclear matrix

53

related to protein production and are made of RNA, enzymes, and
histones; they synthesize rRNA and ribosomal subunits

Nucleoli

54

DNA coiled around histones

Nucleosomes

55

Loosely coiled DNA (cells not dividing)

Chromatin

56

Tightly coiled DNA (cells dividing)

Chromosomes

57

Instructions for every protein in the body

DNA

58

DNA instructions for one protein

Gene

59

The chemical language of DNA instructions

Genetic code

60

Consists of 3 bases that code for 1 amino acid

Triplet code

61

Process involving uncoiling of DNA with the use of promoters and terminators

Gene activation

62

Process involving copying instructions from DNA to mRNA

Transcription

63

produces
messenger RNA (mRNA)

RNA polymerase

64

process by which ribosome reads code from mRNA (in cytoplasm) and assembles amino acids into polypeptide chain

Translation

65

Three steps to transcribe a gene to mRNA

1. Gene activation
2. DNA to mRNA
3. RNA processing

66

What happens during gene activation?

• Uncoils DNA, removes histones
• Start (promoter) and stop codes on DNA mark
location of gene

67

Strand that codes for protein

coding strand

68

strand used by the RNA polymerase molecule

Template strand

69

Unnecessary gene codes

introns

70

Good genetic codes in mRNA

exons

71

Triplet of three nucleotides

codon

72

What happens during Translation?

• mRNA moves from the nucleus through a nuclear pore
• mRNA moves to a ribosome in cytoplasm surrounded by amino acids
• mRNA binds to ribosomal subunits where tRNA delivers amino acids to mRNA

73

Property that determines what moves in and out of a cell

Permeability

74

A membrane that lets nothing in or out is said to be?

impermeable

75

A membrane that lets anything pass is said to be?

freely permeable

76

A membrane that restricts movement is said to be?

selectively permeable

77

Transport requiring energy and ATP

Active

78

Transport with no energy required

Passive

79

the process in which the solute move from high
and low concentrations

Diffusion

80

Factors influencing Diffusion

• Distance
• Molecule Size
• Temperature
• Concentration Gradient
• Electrical Forces

81

type of diffusion that diffuses lipid soluble compounds and dissolved gases through plasma membrane

simple diffusion

82

type of diffusion that diffuses water-soluble compounds and ions through plasma membrane

Channel-mediated diffusion

83

the diffusion of water across the cell membrane

Osmosis

84

A solution that does not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell

Isotonic

85

Has less solutes and loses water through osmosis

Hypotonic

86

Has more solutes and gains water by osmosis

Hypertonic

87

Type of carrier-mediated transport where two substances move in the same direction at the
same time

Cotransport

88

Type of carrier-mediated transport where one substance moves in while another moves out

Countertransport

89

Proteins that move substrates against concentration gradient

Active transport proteins

90

Active transport, carrier mediated where sodium ions (Na+) moves out, potassium ions (K+) moves in; 1 ATP moves 3 Na+ and 2 K

Sodium–potassium exchange pump

91

Forms when an abnormal cell grows and divides out of control

tumor/neoplasm

92

tumor that do not become invasive

benign tumor

93

neoplastic cells of a tumor invade surrounding tissue

cancer

94

forms when invasiveness allows the cancer cells to break loose, enter blood or lymphatic vessels

secondary tumor (metastases)