Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Brain & Cranial Nerves Deck (121):
What are the regions of the brain?
Cerebrum, diencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata.
What are the types of meninges?
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
Dura mater characteristics?
Outer-most, forms internal periosteum of skull, and no epidura.
What are the dura mater partitions?
Falx cerebelli, falx cerebri, and tentorium cerebelli.
What is the falx cerebelli?
Separates right & left cerebral hemispheres.
What is the falx cerebri?
Separates right & left hemispheres.
What is the tentorium cerebelli?
separates lobes of cerebrum from cerebellum.
Arachnoid mater characteristics?
Spider web like and spreads over brain but doesn't extend into grooves & depressions.
Pia mater characteristics?
inner most, aids in nourishing brain,and attached to surface of brain.
What are ventricles?
spaces filled with CSF.
What are the ventricles?
2 lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, and 4th ventricle.
Where are the 2 lateral ventricles connected by and to?
Interventricular foramen and connected to 3rd ventricle.
What is the 3rd ventricle connected by and to?
Cerebral aqueduct and connected to 4th ventricle.
What is the 4th ventricle connected to?
Central canal of the spinal cord.
What are the functions of CSF?
Cushions, transport nutrients, wastes, and other chemicals, and support brain.
Where is CSF formed?
The choroid plexus.
What is the choroid plexus?
Lobes located in the ventricles.
What does the choroid plexus consist of?
Ependymal cells and permeable capillaries.
How is CSF taken into the ventricles?
Ependymal cells take CSF from blood and pool it in the ventricles.
Where is CSF located in the CNS?
It originates in the ventricles, through apertures in the 4th ventricles to subarachnoid space, through central canal, and around subarachnoid space.
Where is CSF reabsorbed?
The sagittal sinus.
Sagittal sinus characteristics?
A large venous tube within the dura mater, extends along the midline of the cerebral hemispheres, arachnoid extends into sinus through arachnoid granulations and CSF goes back to blood
Functions of the cerebrum?
Interpret sensory impulses, voluntary muscular movements, memory, reasoning process, and intelligence & personality.
How are the cerebral hemispheres connected?
By the corpus callosum.
How are the hemispheres separated?
By the longitudinal fissure?
What are the ridges in the cerebrum?
What are the grooves in the cerebrum?
What allows communication between the hemispheres?
The corpus callosum.
What is hemisphere specialization?
Receives sensory and generates motor information to the opposite side of the body.
What does cerebral gray matter consist of?
Where is cerebral gray matter located?
The outer regions of cerebral lobes.
Cerebral gray matter is centralized in masses called?
What are the types of cerebral white matter?
Commissural fibers, association fibers, and projection fibers.
What are commissural fibers?
Connect corresponding gray areas on different hemispheres.
What are association fibers?
Connect different parts of same hemisphere.
What are projection fibers?
Connect cerebrum to lower brain areas.
What are the cerebral lobes?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula (the deep one).
Where is the primary motor cortex located?
Anterior to central sulcus in frontal lobe.
What are the functions of the primary motor cortex?
Conscious control of skeletal muscles, learned motor skills, and speech and eye movements.
Where is the primary sensory cortex located?
Posterior to central sulcus on parietal lobe.
What are the functions of the primary sensory cortex?
Somatic sensory information from touch, pain, and pressure and monitor environment consciously.
What are the other sensory cortexes?
Visual cortex, auditory cortex, olfactory cortex, gustatory cortex.
Visual cortex location and function?
Occipital lobe. Sight.
Auditory cortex location and function?
Temporal lobe. Sound.
Olfactory cortex location and function?
Temporal lobe. Smell.
Gustatory lobe location and function?
Insula and frontal lobe. Taste.
What are association areas?
One associated with most large motor of sensory cortexes.
What are the association areas?
Somatic sensory, somatic motor, visual, and auditory.
What are the cerebral regions? (special ones, 3)
Prefrontal cortex, broca's speech center, general interpretive area.
Prefrontal cortex characteristics?
Abstract intellectual function, predictions, problem solving, emotional context and motivation, timing and temporal relationships.
What is removal of the prefrontal cortex called?
Broca's speech center function?
Regulates breathing and vocalization.
General interpretive area functions?
Interpretation of both written and verbal language and sentence structure and word linkage.
What are dominant hemispheres called?
Categorical and representational hemispheres.
Categorical hemisphere functions?
Speech, writing, and general interpretive area.
Representational hemisphere functions?
Identification of familiar objects, touch and spatial analysis, and emotional relevance.
What side do right handed people tend to have their categorical hemisphere on?
The left and vice versa for left handed people.
Basal nuclei make up and location?
Masses of gray matter deep in cerebral hemisphere.
Basal nuclei functions?
Act as relay station for motor impulses starting in cerebral cortex and passing to brain stem & spinal cord.
What are the specific basal nuclei?
Claustrum, lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus, and amygdaloid nucleus.
Focuses visual attention and processes unconscious visual info.
Lentiform nucleus functions?
Controls & adjusts muscle tone.
Caudate nucleus structure and functions?
Massive head and slender tail. Maintains patter& rhythm pattern & rhythm of movement.
Amygdaloid nucleus location and function?
Tip of caudate tail. Part of limbic system.
Epithalamus, posterior pituitary gland, thalamus, and hypothalamus.
Epithalamus structure and function?
Pineal gland. Produces melatonin.
Thalamus location and characteristics?
Central to the cerebrum. Has two major bodies divided by the third ventricle and connected by a interthalamic adhesion.
Function of thalamus?
Part of the limbic system (emotion, memory, learning, and conscious awareness of emotion), connect basal nuclei and cerebral cortex (to each other and to other parts of CNS), and sends sensory info to proper location within cerebrum.
Below the thalamus and above and connected to the posterior pituitary gland.
Subconscious control of skeletal muscles, coordinates autonomic nervous system, connection between endocrine and nervous systems, directly produces hormones, produces behavioral drives, regulates body temp, and controls sleep patterns such as circadian rhythms.
Mescencephalon (midbrain) characteristics?
Connects brain stem & spinal cord with higher areas, acts a relay centers, and contains cerebral aqueduct.
Parts of mesencephalon?
Cerebral peduncles, red nucleus, substantia nigra, and corpora quadrigemina.
Cerebral peduncle characteristics?
Only connecting fibers and no nuclei, motor fibers connecting the cortex to the spinal cord, and sensory fibers that synapse with the thalamus.
Red nucleus characteristics?
Highly vascularized (hence red color), connects cerebrum and cerebellum, and controls posture and reflexes.
Substantia nigra characteristics?
Controls and integrates the motor output of the basal nuclei, produces dopamine (giving it a black color), deterioration may lead to Parkinson's disease.
Corpora quadrigemina parts?
Superior colliculi and inferior colliculi.
Functions of superior colliculi?
Receives visual input from thalamus.
Functions of inferior colliculi?
Receives auditory input from medulla.
Rounded bulge on underside of brain stem that separates midbrain from medulla.
Pons characteristics and functions?
Masses of gray matter & nerve fibers. Relay impulses to & from medulla & cerebrum and regulates depth of breathing.
2 hemispheres separated by falx cerbelli and connected by vermis and mainly white matter (arbor vitae).
Integrates sensory information about the position of body parts, coordinates muscle activities, maintain posture, fine tunes voluntary and involuntary movements.
Medulla oblongata characteristics?
From foramen magnum to pons, a point of connection for several cranial nerve, and oval swelling = olivary nucleus.
What are the reflex centers of the medulla oblongata?
Cardiovascular center and respiratory rhythmicity center.
What does the cardiovascular center do?
Adjusts blood flow and heart rate.
What does the respiratory rhythmicity center do?
Basic pace of respiratory movements.
What are reticular formations?
Network of nerve fibers associated with islands of gray matter.
Reticular formation characteristics?
Interconnects areas with fibers in all major tracts and regulates motor activities.
What causes wakefulness?
Increased activity of reticular formation.
What causes sleep?
Decreased activity of reticular formation.
How and where is the limbic system located?
In nuclei and tracts along the border of cerebrum and diencephalon.
What are the limbic system regions of the cerebrum?
Limbic lobe, hippocampus, and amygdaloid body.
Limbic lobe characteristic?
Deep to all other lobes.
Nucleus within the lobe.
Amygdaloid body characteristic?
What are the limbic system regions of the diencephalon?
Thalamus and hypothalamus.
Behavioral drive center.
What is the limbic system of the medulla?
Reticular formation characteristic?
Sleep and wakefulness.
Functions of the limbic system?
Establishes emotional states and related behavioral drives, links intellectual functions of cortex to unconscious functions of lower brain, and facilitates memory storage.
Cranial nerve general characteristics?
12 total, all originate from brain stem except 1st pair, cell bodies for sensory found in ganglia outside brain, cell bodies for motor found in gray matter, and pass through foramina in skull.
Do cranial nerves look organized in mammals?
No, but they are organized sequentially in fish and cephalochordates.
Olfactory nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
I, sensory, smell, and pass through cribiform plate.
Optic nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
II, sensory, vision, and pass through optic foramina.
Oculomotor nerve number, type, function?
III, motor, and move the majority of eye muscles.
Trochlear nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
IV, motor, superior obliques muscles of eye only, and smallest pair.
Trigeminal nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
V, both, 3 branches, and largest.
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve?
Ophthalamic, maxillary, and mandibular branch.
Where does the ophthalamic branch go?
Eye, tear gland & skin of anterior scalp, forehead & upper eyelid.
Where does the maxillary branch go?
Upper teeth, gum, lip & mucous lining of palate & skin of face.
Where does the mandibular branch go?
Scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, gum & lip; muscles of mastication.
Abducens nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
VI, motor, lateral rectus eye muscles only, and from pons.
Facial nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
VII, both, sensory: taste receptors on anterior 2/3 of tongue and motor: to muscles of facial expression; stimulate tear & salivary glands, and from pons.
Vestibulocochlear nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
VIII, sensory, 2 parts: sensitive to changes in position of head and interpreted as hearing, and auditory nerve from medulla.
Glossopharyngeal nerve number, type, and function?
IX, both, sensory: from lining of pharynx, tonsils & posterior 1/3 of tongue, motor: to wall of pharynx to help swallowing.
Vagus nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
X, both, sensory: from lining of pharynx, larynx & esophagus & abdomen, somatic motor: to muscles of larynx cause speech & swallowing, autonomic motor: to heart, other smooth muscles & glands in visceral organs, and from medulla to chest & abdomen.
Accessory nerve number, type, and function?
XI, motor, 2 branches - cranial: from medulla to muscles of soft palata, pharynx & larynx, and spinal: sends motor fibers to trapezius & sternocleidomastoid.
Hypoglossal nerve number, type, function, 1 characteristic?
XII, motor, for speakin, chewing & swallowing, and from medulla to tongue.
Out On Our Table Top Are Fruits Very Green Veggies (not broccoli) And Hamburgers?
I - Olfactory
II - Optic
III - Oculomotor
IV - Trochlear
V - Trigeminal
VI - Abducens
VII - Facial
VIII - Vestibulocochlear
IX - Glossopharyngeal
X - Vagus
XI - Accessory
XII - Hypoglossal