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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Vocab Deck (32)
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1

A large atom of one element is split to produce 2 different smaller elements

Fission

2

Two small atoms combine to form a larger atom of a different element

Fusion

3

Contain different numbers of neutrons but same number of protons and electrons

Isotopes

4

The sum of the number of neutrons and the number of protons in the nucles of the atom

Mass number

5

The process of separating 235U from 238U to produce a material containing higher conecntration

Enrichment

6

The 235U is highly enriched so the spontaneous fission of an atom can trigger a chain reaction

Nuclear bomb

7

Slow down the neutrons that produce fission so that they are traveling at the right speed to trigger another fission

Moderator

8

Long metal tubes loaded with pellets containing enriched uranium dioxide

Fuel rods/Fuel elments

9

Become stable by spontaneously ejecting subatomic particles and or high-energy radiation

Radioisotopes

10

The ejected particles and radiation

Radioactive emissions

11

Radioactivity is measured in

curies

12

Materials that become radioactive by absorbing neutrons from fission

Radioactive waste

13

Radiaton exposure is measured as what

Absorbed dose

14

The units of low level radiation exposure

Grays

15

The units of high level radiation exposure

Sieverts

16

The old term which equals 0.01 Sv

Rem

17

High levels of radiation may destroy cell, causing immediate death

High dose

18

The result of high dose which may lead to death

Radiation sickness

19

In lower doses, radiation may damage DNA

Low Dose

20

The process in which unstable isotopes eject particles and radiation

Radioactive decay

21

The time for half of the amount of a radioactive isotope to decay

Half life

22

Operation in which some radioisotopes may be recovered for use as a nuclear fuel

Reprocessing

23

Used to store short-live isotopes

Short-term containment

24

Used to store long-lived isotopes

Long-term containment

25

Relies on operator-controlled actions, external power, electric signals, etc.

Active safety

26

Involves engineering devices and structures that make it virtually impossible for the reactor to go beyond acceptable levels of power

Passive safety

27

Lets gravity drain water into the reactor

The Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor

28

Stepped up security measures at nuclear power plants across the nation

The Energy Policy Act of 2005

29

occurs when the neutron bombardment causes the metals to become brittle enough that they may crack under thermal stress

Embrittlement

30

A normal consequence of steam generation

Corrosion

31

The closing down of a power plant

Decommissioning

32

The fusion of hyrdogen nuclei into larger atoms, such as helium

The d-t reaction