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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocab Quiz Deck (52)
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1

A group of members of the same species living in an area

Population

2

The populations of different species living together in one area

Community

3

The change in population number which is represented by the equation: (Births+ Immigration)-(Deaths+ Emigration)= Change in population number

Population growth

4

If births plus immigration are more or less equal to deaths plus emigration over time

Equilibrium

5

Population explosion under absolutely ideal conditions

J curve(exponential growth)

6

If resources run out following an exponential growth in population, the population experiences a huge die off

Reverse J curve

7

Natural mechanisms may cause the population to level off and continue in a dynamic equilibrium

S curve(logistic growth)

8

Maximum population of a species that a given habitat can support without the habitat being degraded over long term

Carrying capacity(limit)

9

Rate which members of species reproduce

Biotic potential

10

Survival through early growth stages to become part of the breeding population

Recruitment

11

Combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may limit population increase

Environmental resistance

12

High biotic potential

r-strategists

13

Low biotic potential

k-strategists

14

Good early survival and die of old age

Type I survivorship curve

15

Organisms die at a constant rate regardless of age

Type II survivorship curve

16

Poor early survival, improves with age

Type III survivorship curve

17

Number of individuals per unit area

Population density

18

Factor that causes population growth to decrease

Limiting factor

19

Limiting factor depending on population size

Density-depending limiting factor

20

Affect all populations in similar ways, regardless populations size

Density-independent limiting factor

21

States that no two species can occupy same niche in same habitat at same time

Competitive exclusion principle

22

Lowest population level for survival and recovery

Critical number

23

Species whose populations are declining rapidly

Threatened (Endangered Species Act)

24

Population is near what scientists believe to be its critical number

Endangered (Endangered Species Act)

25

Two organisms living together

Symbiosis

26

Mutual benefit to both species

Mutualism

27

One species benefits from the interaction and the other is adversely affected

Commensalism

28

One species benefits from the interaction and the other is adversely affected

Parasitism

29

Both species are adversely affected by the interaction

Competition

30

Organisms that kill and eat other animals

Predator

31

Organisms that are eaten by a predator

Prey

32

Are consumers feeding on their hosts

Parasites

33

Plant or animal that is fed upon

Host

34

Consumers that eat plants

Herbivores

35

Consumers that eat meat

Carnivores

36

Consumers that feed on both plants and animals

Omnivores

37

Agents that carry the parasite from one host to another

Vectors

38

Animals that play an important role in maintaing an ecosystem

Keystone species

39

Competition between members of same species

Intraspecific competition

40

Defense of a resource against indiviuals of the same species

Territoriality

41

When plants produce a large number of seedlings in a limited area

Self-thinning in plants

42

5 species of North American warblers that coexist in the spruce forest of Maine

Resource partitioning

43

Each factor that can affect which individuals survive and reproduce which are eliminated

Selective pressures

44

Process by which populations of one species separate and develop into new species

Speciation

45

When similar organisms live within the same location but fulfill different niches

Sympatric speciation

46

When a new species is created over time because of physical separation of a population

Allopatric speciation

47

A theory that helps explain volcanoes and earthquakes

Plate tectonics

48

Hot material rises while cooler material sinks toward the interior

Convection currents

49

Oceanic plates slide under a continental plate

Subduction zones

50

Two continental plates converge resulting in the formation of mountain ranges

Collision zone

51

Boundaries where two plates are sliding past each other causing earthquakes

Transform fault zones

52

Animals or plants brought into an ecosystem from a foreign ecosystem

Introduces species