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Flashcards in Chapter 13 vocab Deck (41)
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1

Organism that is harmful or destructive
with humans or our social or economic endeavors.

Pest

2

Organisms that feed on
ornamental plants or agricultural crops or animals

Agricultural pest

3

Plants that compete with agricultural
crops, forests, and forage grasses for light and
nutrients.

Weeds

4

Chemical used to kill plants

Herbicide

5

Chemical used to kill animals and insects

Pesticide

6

Use of chemicals to kill large numbers of pests

Chemical treatment

7

Seeks to give long-lasting protection
by developing control agents on the basis of
knowledge of the pest’s life cycle and of
ecological relationships.

Ecological control

8

An approach to controlling pest populations
by using both chemical and ecological methods in a
way that brings about long-term management of pest
populations and also has minimal environmental
impact.

Integrated pest management

9

included toxic heavy metals such as lead, arsenic,
cyanide, and mercury

First-generation pesticides

10

Minute insects that suck the juices from plant cells

Scale insects

11

It was effective against multitude of insect pests.

Broad spectrum

12

It did not break down readily in the environment and provided long lasting protection

Persistent

13

Pesticides that interfere with reproductive hormones

Endocrine disruptors

14

People who study birds, observed drastic declines in populations of many species of birds that fed at the tops of food chains

Ornithologists

15

Process of accumulating higher and higher doses of a pesticide up the food chain

Bioaccumulation

16

The multiplying effect of bioaccumulation in a food chain

Biomagnification

17

A phenomenon that after a pest has been virtually eliminated with a pesticide, the pest population not only recovers, but explodes to higher and more severe levels.

Resurgence

18

A phenomenon in which small populations of insects that were previously of no concern because of their low
numbers suddenly start to explode, creating new problems.

Secondary-pest outbreaks

19

the increase use of chemicals increases resistance and secondary-pest outbreaks, which lead to the use of new and larger quantities of chemicals

Pesticide treadmill

20

Break down into simple nontoxic products within a few weeks of being used.

Nonpersistent pesticides

21

Multiple factors work together to create an unexpected outcome

Synergistic effects

22

Involves working with natural factors instead of synthetic
chemicals.

Natural control/Biological control

23

A no chemical alteration of one or more environmental factors in such a way that the pest finds the environment unsuitable or is unable to gain access to its target.

Cultural control

24

Breeding plants that are resistant to insect pests

Genetic control

25

Chemicals produced in humans and other animals which provide “signals” that control developmental processes and metabolic functions

Hormones

26

If this chemical is sprayed on caterpillars, pupation
does not occur

Juvenile hormone

27

Chemicals secreted by one individual that influence the behavior of another of the same species.

Pheromones

28

A measure used to determine when the damage caused by pests is considerable and outweighs the cost of applying a pesticide.

Economic threshold

29

The use of pesticides to prevent a pest before it becomes a problem

Insurance spraying

30

The use of pesticides to control pests that make fruits or vegetables look bad and less desirable to consumers

Cosmetic spraying

31

Pays the farmer in the event of loss due to pests.

Pest-loss insurance

32

Passed by Congress to establish guidelines for the certification of organic foods

Organic Foods Protection Act of 1990

33

Requires manufacturers to register pesticides with the
EPA before marketing them and to test their toxicity levels.

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947

34

Protection of public from the risks of pesticides used on food.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938

35

No detectable residue of a pesticide may be on food
if it presents any risk of cancer

The Delaney Clause

36

Passed by Congress which did away with the Delaney Clause and amended both FIFRA and FFDCA.

Food Quality Protection Act of 1996

37

The limit to the amount of pesticide that can remain on food

Tolerance

38

An international treaty that promotes open exchange of information about hazardous chemicals

The Rotterdam Convention

39

Exporting countries inform all potential importing countries of actions they have taken to ban or restrict the use of pesticides or other toxic chemicals

Prior informed consent

40

Approved by the FAO in 2002 which promotes safe use of pesticides

Code of conduct

41

A treaty designed to eliminate or restrict persistent organic pollutants.

Stockholm convention