Chapter 16 - Chronic Health Conditions and Physical or Functional Limitations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Chronic Health Conditions and Physical or Functional Limitations Deck (160)
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1

Define "Youth" in age-range terms.

- “Youth:” Children and adolescents between ages 6-20

2

What are the current Exercise Recommendations for Children and Adolescents?

- 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily
- Should engage in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and bone strengthening activities daily to improve health and reduce risk of developing chronic disease

3

True or False: Children do not produce sufficient levels of glycolytic enzymes to be able to sustain bouts of high-intensity exercise.

True

4

How do children differ from adults when it comes to exercise?

Children tend to have lower peak oxygen uptake levels, lower sweating rates, and lower tolerance for temperature extremes (compared to adults)

5

Children and Adolescents have Glycolytic enzymes are lower than adults resulting in a decreased ability to perform longer-duration (10-90sec) high-intensity tasks. What types of health considerations should a personal trainer take into consideration in order to accommodate for this?

- Lower Reps and Sets with an emphasis on proprioception, skills, and controlled movement.

Resistance exercise for muscular fitness:
- 1-2 sets of 8-10 exercises
- 8-12 reps per exercise
- Resistance exercise should emphasize proprioception, skill, and controlled movements
- Repetitions should not exceed 6-8 per set for strength development or 20 for enhanced muscular endurance

6

When working with children and adolescents, their Submaximal Oxygen Demand is high compared with adults for walking and running. What types of health considerations should a personal trainer take into consideration in order to accommodate for High Submaximal Oxygen?

- Moderate to vigorous - 60 mins 3+ days/week or 3 days/wk if more vigorous
- Intensive anaerobic exercise exceeding 10 seconds is not well tolerated (if using stage II or III training, provide sufficient rest and recovery intervals between intense bouts of training)

7

Children and adolescents have lower absolute sweating rates compared with adults. What types of health considerations should a personal trainer take into consideration in order to accommodate for Lower Sweating Rates?

Restrict vigorous exercise in hot, humid environments to less than 30 minutes and include frequent rest periods.

8

Resistance Training can be safe and effective for youth training. Untrained children can improve their strength by an average of __-__% after 8 weeks of progressive resistance training.

30-40%

9

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Youth Training:
What Modes of Exercise are safe for Youth Training?

Walking, jogging, running, games, activities, sports, water activity, resistance training

10

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Youth Training:
What Frequency (how many times per week) is safe for Youth Training?

5-7 days/week

11

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Youth Training:
What Intensity (for CRE) is safe for Youth Training?

Moderate-to-Vigorous Cardiorespiratory Exercise Training

12

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Youth Training:
What Duration (how long per day/session) is safe for Youth Training?

60 minutes per day

13

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Youth Training:
What types of movement assessments would a personal trainer conduct for Youth?

- Overhead Squats
- 10 push-ups (if 10 cannot be performed, do as many as can be tolerated)
- SL Stance (if can tolerate, perform 3-5 SL Squats per Leg)

14

What are the basic steps/guidelines when developing an Exercise Program for Youth:

- Assess for any movement deficiencies using a variety of movement assessments
- Assessments will help individualize phase 1 stabilization endurance training
- Progression to phases 2-5 should be decided on
* Maturity level
* Dynamic postural control (flexibility and stability)
* How they have responded to training up until this point
- Make it safe and fun!

15

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Youth Training:
What Resistance Training Guidelines are safe for Youth Training?

Reps: 8-12
Sets: 1-2
Intensity: 40-70%
Frequency: 2-3 days/week
Phases:
- Phase 1 of OPT should be mastered before moving on
- Phases 2-5 should be reserved for mature adolescents on the basis of dynamic postural control and a license physician's recommendation

16

What are some typical forms of degeneration associated with aging?

- Osteoporosis
- Arthritis (osteoarthritis)
- Low-back Pain (LBP)
- Obesity

17

List a NORMAL physiologic change that occurs with age and what may cause it.

- Blood pressure tends to be higher at rest and during exercise (could be natural causes, could be disease, could be both)
- Arteriosclerosis may cause blood pressure to be higher

18

What is Arteriosclerosis?

Arteriosclerosis: A general terms that refers to the hardening (and loss of elasticity) or arteries
- Arteries are less elastic and pliable
- Result: greater resistance to blood flow = higher blood pressure
(Normal with Age)

19

List 2 ABNORMAL Physiologic Changes That Occur with Aging

- Atherosclerosis
- Peripheral Vascular Disease

20

What is Atherosclerosis? What is it typically cause by?

- Atherosclerosis: Buildup of fatty plaques in arteries that lead to narrowing and reduced blood flow
- Caused largely by poor lifestyle choices (smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle etc)
- Restricts blood flow due to plaque buildup = increased resistance and higher blood pressure
(Abnormal with Age)

21

What is Peripheral Vascular Disease?

- Peripheral Vascular Disease: A group of diseases in which blood vessels become constricted or blocked, typically as a result of atherosclerosis
- Diseases caused by hypertension
- Refers to plaques that form in any peripheral artery, typically those in the lower leg

22

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior Training:
What Modes of Exercise are safe for Senior Training?

- Stationary or recumbent cycling, aquatic exercise, or treadmill with handrail support

23

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior Training:
What Frequency (how many times per week) is safe for Senior Training?

- 3-5 days/wk of moderate-intensity activities or
- 3 days/wk of vigorous-intensity activities

24

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior Training:
What Intensity (for CRE) is safe for Senior Training?

- 40-85% of VO2 Peak

25

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior Training:
What Duration (how long per day/session) is safe for Senior Training?

- 30-60 minutes / day or 8-10 minute bouts

26

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior Training:
What types of movement assessments would a personal trainer conduct for Seniors?

- Push, Pull, OH Squat or
- Sitting and Standing into a Chair
- Single-Leg Balance

27

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior Training:
What Resistance Training Guidelines are safe for Senior Training?

- 1-3 sets of 8-20 reps at 40-80% on 3-5 days/wk
- Phase 1 of OPT model should be mastered before moving on
- Phases 2-5 should be based on dynamic postural control and a licensed physician’s recommendation

28

Basic Exercise Guidelines for Senior Training:
What Flexibility Training Guidelines are safe for Senior Training?

- Self-myofascial release and static stretching

29

What are some special considerations to keep in mind when developing an exercise program and training Seniors.

- Progression should be slow, well monitored, and based on postural control
- Exercises should be progressed if possible toward free sitting (no support) or standing
- Make sure client is breathing normal manner and avoid holding breath as in a Valsalva maneuver
- If client cannot tolerate SMR or Static stretching b/c of other conditions, perform slow rhythmic active or dynamic stretches

30

What is Obesity? Give BMI Ranges for the 3 categories of obesity.

- Obesity: The condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass
- 30 - 34.99 = Obese - High Risk of Disease
- 35 - 39.99 = Obesity II - Very High Risk of Disease
- ≥ 40 = Obesity III - Extremely High Risk of Disease