Chapter 18 - Supplementation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Supplementation Deck (23)
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What is the definition of a dietary supplement?

A substance that completes or makes an addition to daily dietary intake.


What are the requirements for an item to be considered a dietary supplement?

1. Contains one or more of the following: vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; dietary substance to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; concentrate, metabolite, constituent, or extract; or combination of any of the previously described ingredients
2. Intended for ingestion in a tablet, capsule, powder, soft-gel, gelcap, or liquid form
3. Labeled as a dietary supplement
4. cannot be represents for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or diet
5. Cannot include an article that is approved as a drug or biologic


What is the definition for Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)?

The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.


What is the definition for Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?

The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.


What is the definition for Adequate Intake (AI)?

A recommended average daily nutrient intake level, based on observed (or experimentally determined) approximations or estimates of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group (or groups) of healthy people. This measure is used when RDA cannot be determined.


What is the definition for Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)?

The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health affects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. As intake increase above the UL, the potential risk o adverse health effects increases.


What is the purpose of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)?

Designed to estimate nutrient needs of health people in various age groups and of both sexes (values adjusted for special needs of women during pregnancy and lactation)


What is the unit of measure for proteins, carbohydrates, and fats on a supplement label?



What is the unit of measure for vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids on a supplement label?

Milligram (mg) or microgram (mcg or µg)


What does "Ergogenic" mean? What are considered Ergogenic Aids (with examples)?

Ergogenic: "Work Generating"
Ergogenic Aid: Something that enhances athletic performance
Examples: Creatine, Stimulants (Caffeine)


What is Androstenedione?

A compound in the body that can convert to testosterone or estrogens.


What is Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)?

Produced naturally in the body and can serve as a precursor for androstenedione.


What is the purpose of hormone precursors dietary supplements? Why are they not recommended?

-Promote building of strength and muscle mass
-Not worth usage due to inherent lack of potential benefits
-May affect natural hormone production and is not recommended for healthy athletes and fitness enthusiasts
-Most are on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Code


People are more likely to consume excessive amounts of the following 4 nutrients from supplements and fortified foods combined:

1. Vitamin A
2. Vitamin D
3. Iron
4. Zinc


According to the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institutes of Medicine, adults 19 years and older should consume ______ of their calories from fat.



Which is an example of a complex carbohydrate that is considered a starch?
A) Bran
B) Beans
C) Peas
D) Apples

C) - Peas


What is the recommended daily protein intake for endurance athletes?
A) 0.8 g/kg or 10-35% of totaly daily calories
B) 1.2-1.4 g/kg of body weight
C) 1.6-1.7 g/kg of body weight

B) - 1.2-1.4 g/kg of body weight


When coaching your client on hydration, the DRI for water is approximately ______ liters for women and ______ liters for men.
A) 0.7, 1.7
B) 1.7, 2.7
C) 2.7, 3.7
D) 3.7, 4.7

C) - 2.7, 3.7


The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institutes of Medicine recommends that adults consume _______ of their total calories from carbohydrates, primarily as complex carbohydrates and whole grains.
A) 30-45%
B) 45-65%
C) 65-85%
D) 85-100%

B) - 45-65%

The wide variation in this recommendation accounts for changes in activity overtime. Keep in mind, if your client is exercising 60-90 minutes a day, they will need more carbohydrates than the normal individual.


Which vitamin is necessary for normal blood clotting and bone strength?
A) Thiamin
B) Vitamin K
C) Folic Acid
D) Vitamin B12

B) - Vitamin K


Which of the following amino acids cannot be produced by the body and must be provided by food?
A) Essential Amino Acids
B) Nonessential Amino Acids
C) Semiessential Amino Acids
D) None of These

A) - Essential Amino Acids


What is a visable sign that your client might be dehydrated?
A) Delirium
B) Low blood pressure
C) Sweating
D) Increased appetite

A) - Delirium

It is important to know your client's pre and post water consumption to ensure they are compensating for water loss.
Although low blood pressure can be a sign of dehydration, it may not be as visible when working with a client.


When coaching a client on vitamin and mineral supplemenation, it is advised that you educate your client ____________.
A) to consume a healthy balanced diet to obtain the necessary vitamins and minerals
B) that there is no harm taking more than the daily recommendations of water soluable vitamins
C) that vitamins and mineral are only needed for aging populations

A) - to consume a healthy balanced diet to obtain the necessary vitamins and minerals