Chapter 8 - Cardiorespiratory Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Cardiorespiratory Concepts Deck (56)
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What is cardiorespiratory fitness?

The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.


What is Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training?

Cardiorespiratory training programs that systematically progresses clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system.


Why is Rate of Progression important to monitor?

- Critical to helping clients achieve their personal health and fitness goals in the most efficient and effective use of time and energy.
- If progression is too fast, could lead to injury
- If progression it too slow, could lead to poor exercise adherence.


True or False: An individual's cardiorespiratory fitness level is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality.



What does the Warm-Up Phase do?

Warm-Up Phase: Prepares the body for physical activity.


Describe the General Warm-Up Phase. Give an example.

General Warm-Up Phase: Low-intensity exercise consisting of movement that do not necessarily relate to the intense exercise that is to follow.
- Example: Walking on treadmill or riding a stationary bike before weight training


Describe the Specific Warm-Up Phase. Give an example.

Specific Warm-Up Phase: Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow.
- Example: Performing body weight squats and push-ups before weight training


Describe the cardiorespiratory portion of Warm-Up Phase:

- Typically lasts between 5-10 minutes
- Consists of whole-body, dynamic cardiovascular or muscular movements
- (well below the anticipated training intensity threshold for conditioning).


What is the purpose of the Warm-Up Phase?

- Increase Heart and Respiratory Rates
- Increase tissue temperature
- Psychologically prepare the individual for high training intensities.


List three types of Warm-Up Activities.

1. Self Myofascial Release
2. Static (Active-Isolated or Dynamic) Stretching
3. Cardio Exercise


True or False: For new clients who are sedentary, have health limitations, or those with limited previous exercise experience may require half or more of their dedicated workout time to be directed towards warm-up activities.



How long should a person spend on each muscle during the use of SMR (in any phase of the OPT Model)?



How long should a person spend on each muscle during Static Stretching (Stabilization Phase Warm-Up)?



For stabilization level warm-up, how long should a person spend on cardiorespiratory exercise (CRE) (in any phase of the OPT Model)?



How long should a person spend on each muscle during Active-Isolated Stretching (Strength Phase Warm-Up)?

- 1-2s
- 5-10 reps for each muscle


How long should a person spend on each muscle during Dynamic Stretching (Power Phase Warm-Up)? How can it be performed where it can eliminate the need for CRE Warm-Up?

- 10 repetitions of each side
- Can be performed in circuit format, one after another, which eliminates CRE!


List some benefits of cardiorespiratory exercise.

1. Stronger, more efficient heart
2. Reduced risk of heart disease
3. Lower resting heart rate
4. Lower heart rate at any given level of work
5. Improvement of lung ventilation (more efficient breathing)
6. Stronger respiratory muscles (ex. intercostals)
*7. Thicker articular cartilage and bones with weight-bearing aerobic exercises
8. Improved oxygen transport
*9. Reduced cholesterol levels
10. Reduced arterial blood pressure
*11. Improved fuel supply (improved ability to use fatty acids, sparing muscle glycogen stores....GREAT FOR WEIGHT-LOSS CLIENTS)
12. Improved ability of muscles to use oxygen
*13. Improved mental alertness
*14. Reduced tendency for depression and anxiety
15. Improved ability to relax and sleep
16. Improved tolerance to stress
*17. Increase in lean body mass
*18. Increase in metabolic rate
19. Reduced risk of obesity or diabetes mellitus


What is the purpose of a Cool-Down Phase?

Provides the body with a smooth transition from exercise back to a steady state of rest


What are the goals/benefits of the Cool-Down Phase?

1. Reduce heart and breathing rates
2. Gradually cool body temperature
3. Return muscles to their optimal length-tension relationships
***4.*** Prevent venous pooling of blood in lower extremities (which may cause dizziness or fainting)
5. Restore physiologic systems close to baseline


What is a sufficient amount of time for the Cool-Down Phase?

5-10 minutes


What are some physiological changes that occur during exercise?

During intense, vigorous exercise:
1. circulation of blood increases up to as much as 80-85% of cardiac output (at rest, usually only 15-20% of circulating blood reaches cardiac muscle)
2. Blood is shunted away from major organs (kidneys, liver, stomach and intestines) and redirected to skin to promote heat loss
3. Blood plasma volume also decreases with the onset of exercise and as exercise continues, increased blood pressure forces water from the vascular compartment to the interstitial space (during prolonged, plasma volume can decrease as much as 10-20%)


What does the FITTE principle stand for?

Frequency: number of training session in a given timeframe

Intensity: The level of demand hat a given activity places on the body

Time: The length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity

Type: The type or mode of physical activity that an individual is engaged in

Enjoyment: The amount of pleasure derived from performing a physical activity


What are 6 ways to determine, identify, and monitor cardiorespiratory training?

1. Peak VO2 Method
2. VO2 Reserve Method
3. Peak Metabolic Equivelent Method (MET)
4. Peak Maximal Heart Rate Method
5. HR Reserve Method (HRR)
6. Ratings of Perceived Exertion Method (RPE)


What is Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max)?

The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
(Maximal volume of oxygen pe kilogram of body weight per minute)


What is Oxygen Uptake Reserve (VO2R)?

The difference between resting and maximal or peak oxygen consumption


Higher intensity exercise of greater than __% VO2max is generally required for improvement in overall fitness and conditioning.



What is the Peak VO2 Method? Why is it not the preferred method of

- traditional gold standard for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness via VO2 max (maximal volume of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute)
- Difficult to measure because requires client to perform cardiorespiratory exercise at maximal effort and sophisticated equipment to monitor the clients ventilation response (O2 consumed and CO2 expire)


If moderate intensity of cardiorespiratory fitness is desired, what VO2max percentage should a person strive towards.

Less than 60% of VO2max


What is the VO2 Reserve Method? What is the calculation?

- Preferred method of identifying and monitoring CRE
- Calculation:
Target VO2R = [(VO2max - VO2rest) x intensity desired] + VO2rest

- VO2 rest is usually predicted - estimated at 1 MET or 3.5mL O2 x kg-1 x min-1)
- Intensity Desired between 65-95%


What is the Peak Metabolic Equivalent Method (MET)? What is a MET? Give an example.

- One metabolic equivalent or MET is equal to 3.5mL O2 x kg-1 x min-1 or the equivalent of the average resting metabolic rate (RMR) for adults
- Used to describe the energy cost of physical activity as multiple of resting metabolic rate
- Example: individual with a MET of 4 (slow-paced jogging) would require 4 times the energy than that of a person at rest