Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Resistance Training Concepts Deck (73)
What is the principle of adaptation?
The ability of the human body to respond and adapt to an exercise stimulus.
**One of the most important concepts of training and conditioning**
What are the PHYSIOLOGIC benefits from resistance training?
- Improved cardiovascular efficiency
- Beneficial endocrine (hormone) and serum lipid (cholesterol) adaptations
- Increased bone density
- Increases metabolic efficiency (metabolism)
What are the PHYSICAL benefits from resistance training?
- Increased tissue (muscles, tendons, ligaments) tensile strength
- Increased cross-sectional area of muscle fiber
- Decreased body fat
What are the PERFORMANCE benefits from resistance training?
- Increased neuromuscular control (coordination)
- Increased endurance
- Increased strength
- Increased power
What is General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
- A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress.
- For adaptations to occur, the body must be confronted with a stress or some form of stress that creates the need for a response.
What is the Alarm Reaction Stage (within GAS)?
- The initial reaction to a stressor
Describe the changes to the body during initial sessions of resistance training programs.
The body is forced to try and adapt to increased amounts of force on bone, joints, muscles, connective tissues, an the nervous system.
The Alarm Reaction Stage activates a number of physiological and psychological protective processes within the body. List them.
Physiological: Increase in
- Blood Supply
- Neural recruitment to the working muscles
- Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
What is Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)?
Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
Describe the Resistance Development Stage (within GAS).
- The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor
- Once adaptation has occurred, body will require increased stress or overload to produce a new response and a high level of fitness
(HMS will increase its capability to efficiently recruit muscle fibers and distribute oxygen and blood to the proper areas of the body)
How does one increase stress on the body after the body has adapted to the initial stressor?
Adjust Acute Variables:
- Rest Periods
- Exercise Selection
What is the Exhaustions Stage (within GAS)?
Prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system.
When a stressor is too much for one of the physiologic systems to handle it cause breakdown or injury such as:
- Stress Fractures
- Muscle Strains
- Joint Pain
- Emotional Fatigue
How does the OPT Model help avoid the Exhaustion Stage of GAS?
- Periodization: division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages
What does the acronym SAID stand for?
What is the Principle of Specificity (SAID Principle)?
Principle that states the body will adapt to specific demands that are placed on it
If someone repeatedly lifts heavy weights, that person will produce higher levels of _____ _____.
If someone repeatedly lifts lighter weight for many reps, that person will develop higher levels of ____ _____.
Type I slow twitch fibers are ____ in diameter, _____ to produce maximal tension, and _____ resistant to fatigue.
(In comparison to Type II fast twitch)
Type I slow twitch fibers are important for muscles that need to produce long-term contractions necessary for ________, _______, and postural control.
Type II fast twitch muscle fibers are ______ in diameter, ____ to produce maximal tension, and _____ more quickly.
(In comparison to Type I slow twitch)
- Faster / Quick
What is Mechanical Specificity? Give examples of how it relates to muscular endurance and maximal strength.
Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body
- Example: To develop muscular endurance of the legs requires light weights and high reps.
- Example: To develop maximal strength in the chest, heavy weights must be used in chest-related exercises
What is Neuromusclar Specifity? Give examples of how to develop higher levels of stability, strength, and power.
Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
- STABILITY (example while pushing): chest exercises will need to be performed with controlled, unstable exercises at slower speeds
- STRENGTH: exercises should be performed in more stable environments with heavier loads to place more emphasis on the prime movers.
- POWER: low-weight, high-velocity contractions must be performed in a plyometric manner.
What is Metabolic Specificity? Give examples of how to develop endurance, and maximal strength or power. What type of pathway are each using (aerobic vs anaerobic pathways).
The energy demand placed on the body
- ENDURANCE: training will require prolonged bouts of exercise with minimal rest periods in between sets (primarily use aerobic pathways to supple energy for the body)
- MAXIMAL STRENGTH / POWER: training will require longer rest period, so the intensity of each bout of the exercise remains high (energy primarily supplied via the anaerobic pathways)
For a weight-loss clients, describe how to achieve Mechanical Specificity.
- Use Moderate Weights
- Standing versus Seated exercises (body burns more calories when movements are performed while standing versus seated or lying positions)
- Exercise: Standing Cable Rows versus Seated Cable Rows
For a weight-loss clients, describe how to achieve Neuromuscular Specificity.
- The body burns more calories when more muscles are being used form longer periods in controlled, unstable environments.
- Exercise: Single-Leg Dumbbell Shoulder Press versus Seated Machine Shoulder Press
For a weight-loss clients, describe how to achieve Metabolic Specificity.
- The body burns more calories when rest periods are short top minimize full recuperation.
- Exercise: have client perform resistance training exercises in a circuit fashion with no rests between sets
Describe stabilization and the importance of stabilization resistance training.
- The HMS's ability to provide optimal dynamic joint support to maintain correct posture during all movements.
- It increases the ability of the kinetic chain to stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex and joints during movement to allow the arms and legs to work more efficiently
Describe Muscular Endurance and its importance in all fitness programs.
- The ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time
- Increase core and joint stability (foundation for hypertrophy, strength and power)
- Focuses on the recruitment of muscle responsible for postural stability (Type I)