Flashcards in Chapter 18: Nationalism, Real Politik, and Realism Deck (20):
The unification of a group of people who share the same language, culture, or sense of identity to achieve political independence.
This lead to the end of the Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe, as well as played major roles in the unification of German and Italy.
The use of pragmatic, tough-minded diplomacy and military force. Examples include Otto van Bismarck, Napoleon III, and Cavour.
Louis Napoleon from the Revolution of 1848 proclaims himself as Emperor Napoleon III. Believed that the Concert of Europe undermined France's greatness, so he wanted to undermine that.
He understood the importance of industrialization, as he set up more railroads, transportation, rights to the urban working class, and undertook the redesigning of Paris.
Redesigning of Paris
Took place under Napoleon III. Replaced Paris streets with wide avenues, parks, and monuments, meant to be a symbol of Paris's greatness and wealth, as well as made it harder for rioters to blockade the streets.
1853-1856. Religious confusion, with France (protector of the Catholics) and Russia (protector of Orthodox clergy), and Turkey in the middle.
1. Nicholas I wanted to control Turkey. Was basically Russia vs. rest of Europe.
2. Seige at Sevastopol, but the new Czar Alexander II sued for peace after its fall.
1. Left many unsolved international tensions.
2. France succeeded in breaking the alliance between Russia and Austria.
3. Austria was now isolated from the rest of European powers, which left it vulnerable to German and Italian unification.
4. Russia's Alexander II underwent a series of reforms.
5. Napoleon III was a very powerful ruler now.
6. Florence Nightingale (English) played a major role in professionalizing nursing for women.
Czar Alexander II
Autocrat that put Russia under many major reforms following the Crimean War. Russia, before him, was backwards, still had serfdom, and unfair tax distribution.
1. Emancipated the serfs in 1861. Though, this was only partially helpful, because serfs still did not own land and was still cheap labor.
2. Zemstvos, system of local and regional self-government.
3. As Alexander II instilled more reforms, people got more hopeful. But the "nihilists," believed in nothing, and created the "People's Will" who wanted to overthrow the government.
4. Czar Alexander II died, which then caused a series of suppression of civil liberties.
Unification of Italy
Many people had failed in the previous unification of Italy, such as the Revolution of 1830 (Carbonari) and 1848 (Giuseppe Mazzini). Continued obstacles included Austrian presence in Italy, and the opposition from the Pope.
However, the Italians looked to Piedmont-Sardinia for leadership in unification, and Cavour was named the prime minister.
Named the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. Used realpolitik and was a realist. He strengthened the economy and army of Italy, and then made an alliance with Napoleon III to drive Austria out of Italy.
War with Austria (Italian Unification)
1859. Resulted in Austria being driven out by the France and Italian forces.
Giuseppe Garibaldi & Red Shirts
Pragmatic, realist Cavour and romantic Garibaldi both agreed Italy needed to be unified. Cavour handled the Austrians in the North, and Garibaldi was handling the South.
Italian Unification (Problems)
- Unification was not finished, because Venetia was still controlled by the Austrians, and the pope opposed all this.
- North and South Italy were very different. North was urban, sophisticated, and industrialized, whereas South was backwards, poor, and rural.
- The new government faced large debt.
Unification of Germany
Before the unification, Germany was very politically divided with a few particularly strong states, and the French continually opposed German unification (because it would create another very strong country).
Prussia was also gaining population and power, also promoted the Zollverein.
Otto van Bismarck
A Junker, realpolitik prime minister who set out to strengthen Prussia. He enlarged and strengthened the Prussia army.
Undertook a war with Denmark, Austria, and France to achieve German unification.
War with Denmark
1864. Victory in the war with Denmark allowed Bismarck to begin eliminating Austria from German affairs.
War with Austria
1866. Bismarck provoked Austria into calling war on Prussia, in which Austria lost to Prussia's new military tactics and strong military. Austria then agreed to separating itself form the German empire.
War with France
1870. France was always opposed German unification. Bismarck tactfully inflamed relations between France and Prussia, which Napoleon III called war on Prussia. The Prussians with their new army invaded France, and Napoleon III was forced to surrender.
Bismarck forced France to pay a huge amount of money, and Alsace Lorraine to Germany. Germany was now unified and industrialized, which quickly became a super power in Europe.
The Austrian Empire
Suffered many humiliating defeats with the Italian and German unification. Had many different ethnicities living under Habsburg rule, which the Magyars were prevalent and wanted independence.
Austrian empire merged with the Habsburgs, which satisfied the Magyars, but only worsened the ethnicity problem.
Britain still enjoyed prosperity and peace throughout all this shit.
The Reform Bill of 1867
The growing class still demanded reform. Disraeli led the Conservatives into this new reform bill, which gave more suffrage to the working class.