Chapter 19 BLOOD Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 BLOOD Deck (109):
1

Define Blood

Fluid connective tissue
transport system

2

5 Functions of blood

Transport, regulate, prevents, protects, stabalizes
1. Transport of gases, nutrients, waste & hormones
2. Regulation; ph, fluid, electrolyte balace
3. Prevents fluid loss at injury site=clotting
4. Protection=WBC
5. Stabilizes body temp=circulation, body absorbs heat & distributes it to other parts of the body

3

Whole blood, Plasma

fluid consisting of water, dissolved plasma protein

4

Whole blood, Formed elements

all cells and cell fragments

5

Three types of formed elements

1. RBCs / erythocytes (Red cells transport O2)
2.WBCs or leukocytes=part of immune system
3. Platelets=cell fragments involved in clotting

6

amount of blood

4 - 6 liters incl. plasma (46-63%) and blood cells (37-54%) of total blood volume

7

Temperature of blood

100.4 high to maintain heat distribution

8

Bright red blood

arterial blood , due to O2 venous blood

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Darker red blood

darker, dull due to O2 deficit

10

PH

7.35 - 7.45 (slightly alkaline)

11

Viscosity/thickness or resistance to flow

5X thicker than water because of blood cells and plasma viscosity which maintains normal blood pressure

12

Plasma definition

liquid part of the blood, 92% water

13

water solvent enables plasma to transport substances, 5 examples:

1. nutrients circulated to tissue and organs
2. waste circulated to kidneys
3. hormones carried to target organs
4. antibodies circulated to infected areas
5. carbon dioxide carried to lungs in the form of bicarbonate

14

Plasma Proteins

synthesized by liver, contribute to the transfer of molecules to and from blood; cannot cross capillary walls because of large size

15

Albumin

most abundant plasma protein; synthesized in liver, provides colloidosmotic pressure which attracts tissue fluid into blood plasma; helps maintain normal blood volume and pressure

16

Globulins

Transport proteins
hormone-binding binds and transports hormone like the thyroid binding globulin
metalloproteins transport metals like transferrin
apoliopoproteins carry triglycerides and other lipids in the blood like lipoproteins
steroid binding proteins-transport steroid hormones like, testosterone bending globulin

17

fibrinogen

clotting factor, inactive until needed by ruptured vessels, then converted to fibrin which forms the basic clot framework

18

serum

the fluid resulting from removal of clotting factors

19

Blood Cells

produced in hemopoietic tissues; red bone marrow and lymphatic tissue

20

Red blood cells (fig. 19-2)

RBCs/erythrocytes=smarty shape, biconcave center

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Hemopoiesis

production of formed elements from myeloid and lymphoid stem cells

22

Shape gives RBCs

a large surface area for quick absorption and release of O2 molecules (3800 sq. M)
flexibility to get through narrow capillaries

23

rouleau

shape of BCs allows cells to stack, smoothing flow through narrow blood vessels

24

no mitochondria in RBCs so where does it get its energy?

anaerobic glycolysis

25

Hematcrit

measures blood cells by centrifuge. formed elements and plasma separate and percentage can be detrmined

26

hemacrit for males and females?

46- males
42-females

27

Hemoglobin

protein in RBC which carries O2

28

Hemoglobin count from males and females?

Male-14 - 18 g/dL
Female- 12 - 16 g/dL

29

Each HB molecule has

2 alpha and beta chains of polypeptide within a quaternary protein structure, ea. chain contains a single heme molecule

30

Each heme unit holds

one Fe and ea. Fe molecule holds one O2 molecule

31

how many hemoglobin molecules per one RBC

280 million (ea. of which can bond to 4 oxygen molecules)

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oxyhemoglobin

RBC carrying oxygen (bright red)

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deoxyhemoglobin

RBCs travel through tissues and give up there oxygen (dark red)

34

Fetal hemoglobin

strong form, found in embryo, takes O2 from moms

35

function of hemoglobin

carries oxygen

36

carbaminohemoglobin

when plasma oxygen levels are low, hemoglobin releases oxygen and binds to carbon dioxide, takes it to lungs

37

anemia

if hematocrit levels are low or HB content is reduced; body suffers from oxygen deprivation

38

RBC formation / turn over

120 day lifespan, travels 700 miles, 1 % of RBCs wear out per day and about 3 million enter the blood stream per sec.

39

Hemoglobin conversion and recycling process

see fig. 19-5

40

production and maturation of blood cells

embryonic RBCs are formed in 3ed wk of development, yolk sac is the 1st site of blood cell formation; then the liver and spleen

41

erythropoiesis

RBC formation occurs in myeloid tissue (red bone marrow), stem cells mature to become RBCs

42

Red bone marrow

found in flat and irregular bones of adults

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yellow bone marrow

fatty tissue that can convert to red bone marrow during severe trauma / blood loss

44

1. hemocytoblasts

blood producing precursor cells produced in red bone marrow

45

hemocytoblasts continuously produce 2 kinds of blood cells

myeloid-become RBC's, some WBCs
lymphhoid stem cells-become lymphocytes

46

2. proerythroblasts

fist stage of an RBC; day 1

47

3. basophilic erythroblast

2ed day of maturation

48

4. polychromatophilic erythroblast

day 3 of maturation

49

5. normoblast

day 4 of maturation; last developmental stage where RBC still has nucleus...end of stage nucleus disintegrates

50

6. reticulocyte

days 5-7 of maturation; contains 80 % of hemoglobin of a mature RBC; enters circulation after day 7 and takes another 24 hrs to mature fully

51

7.erythocytes

blank

52

what is necessary for the synthesis of hemoglobin?

protein, iron, copper

53

what extrinsic factor is necessary for DNA synthesis in the bloods cells of red bone marrow?

B12

54

Intrinsic factor

gastric cells produce this to bind to dietary B12 so that it won't be digested, its absorbed into small intestines

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**Erythropoietin

Hormone, stimulates erythropoiesis directly or indirectly by stimulation thyroxine, androgens and growth hormone

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Erythropoietin, stimulated by low ___ levels during anemia, blood flow to ____ declines or oxygen content to ____ declines

oxygen
kidney
lungs

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Erythropoietin travels to red bone marrow and stimulates

stem cells

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Erythropoietin increases rate of cell division in

eurethrablasts

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Erythropoitin speeds up maturation of RBCs by accelerating

hemoglobin synthesis

60

Blood doping

athletes elevate hematocrits by reinfusing RBCs that were removed and stored at an earlier date; improves O2 delivery to muscles but can be hard on the heart because of increased viscosity

61

typing and crossmatching

it is important to ensure that donated blood will not be reacted on

62

Cross-reaction

when an antibody meets its specific surface antigen, the RBCs agglutinates and may hemolyse

63

White blood cells

leukocytes larger than RBCs and have a nuclei when mature; function is immunity

64

WBC count

5000 to 10,000 per mm3 (some are in tissue)

65

WBCs have

nucleus and organells

66

WBC lack

hemoglobin

67

WBC functions, 3

1. defend against pathogens
2. remove toxins/waste
3. attract abnormal cells

68

WBC circulation and movement

most found in connective tissue and lymph. system organs; small number in blood (5000 - 10000)

69

4 characteristics of circulating WBCs

1. can migrate through diapedisis or emigration
2.have ameboid movement so it can move through endothelial linings
3. attracted to positive chemotaxis, guiding WBCs to damaged tissue or pathogens
4. some are phagocytic; neutrophils, eosinophils and nomcytes

70

Granular Leukocytes

produced in red bone marrow, have colored granules when stained, have lobed nuclei, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils

71

Neutrophils

prefer bacteria and fungi
50 - 70 % of circulating WBCs
cytoplasm has lysosomal enzymes and bactericides (hydrogen peroxide)

72

Neutrophils are very...

active, 1st to attack bacteria
engolf and digest pathogens

73

Defensens

attack pathogen membranes

74

Neutrophils release...

prostaglandins that increase capillary permeability contributing to inflammation which restricts the spread of injury or infection

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leukotrines

hormones that attract other phagocytes and help coordinate the immune response

76

Puss is

dead neutrophils, cellular debris and waste

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Eosiniphils (acidophils)

2-4 % of WBCs
attacks parasitic worms that are too large to be phagocytized

78

Eosiniphils excrete the toxic compounds

nitric oxide and cytotoxic enzymes through exocytosis

79

Eosiniphils are sensitive to

allergens so they increase in number during allergic reactions

80

Eosiniphils control inflammation with enzymes that

counteract effects of neutrophils and mast cells

81

Basophils

ratest WBC, smaller than neutrophils

82

Basophils bind to

antibody that causes granules to release histamine, dilating blood vessels

83

Basophils release

heporine to prevent clotting and attract other eosinophils and basophils to the area

84

agranular leukocytes

produced in spleen, lymph nodes and thymus, red bone marrow, lymphocytes and nomocytes

85

monocytes

largest leukocyte, twice the size of an RBC
leave blood stream and enter peripheral tissue and become macrophages with big appetite

86

Monocytes phagocytize:

viruses, bacterial parasites and dead tissue

87

Monocytes secrete

substances that attract immune system cells and fibroblasts that lay down scar tissue to injury

88

Lymphocytes

Larger than RBCs, migrate in and out of blood, found in connective tissues and lymphoid organs, they are part of the body's defense system

89

Three classes of lymphocytes

1. T-cell-mediated immunity; attack foreign cells
2. B-humoral immunity; turn into PLASMA CELLS and synthesize antibodies that travel throughout the blood to destroy their target

90

Differential WBC count

percent of ea. kind of leukocyte

91

Leukocytosis

high WBC count = infection

92

Leukopenia

Low WBC count

93

Lymphopoiesis

formation of lymphocytes

94

Platelets

fragments of cells that play a major role in clotting

95

thrombocytopenia

abnormal low platelet count

96

thrrombocytosis

high platelet count, signifies cancer of infection

97

3 functions of platelets

1. release clotting chemicals
2. patch damaged vessel walls temporarily
3. reduces size of a break in vessel wall

98

Platelet production called

thrombopoiesis

99

4 Thrombopoiesis facts

1. stem cells turn into megakaryocytes which break up into sm. pieces that enter circulation
2. platelets survive 9-12 days
3. removed from circulation by spleen
4.2/3 stored for emergencies

100

Hemostasis

stopping of bleeding

101

Hemostasis, 3 phases (happen all at once)

vascular phase; causes vascular spasm, decreasing the diameter of the vessels; lasts 30 min
platelet phase; beginning=attachment of platelets to endothelial surface (15 sec of injury occurrence)
*Coagulation phase (see coagulation card, know for test!)

102

Coagulation phase

dependent on clotting factors (procoagulants) in pathway; incl calcium and 11 proteins; causes a cascade reaction of enzymes and proenzymes that ends in the conversion of circulation fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin (fibrin is the end result)

103

The Extrinsic Pathway (3)

outside blood stream, in vessel wall
1. damaged cells release tissue factor (TF)
2. TF + other compounds and calcium= enzyme complex
3. activates factor X

104

Intrinsic pathway (in blood stream 4 steps)

1. begins with circulating proenzymes within bloodstream
2. activation of enzymes by collagen
3. platelets release factors
4. series of reaction activates factor X

105

** Common Pathway, define and 2 steps

begins when enzymes from eithr the ex or intrinsic pathway activate factor X
1. the enzyme prothrombinase is formed; converts prothrombin to thrombin
2. thrombin converts fibrinegen to fibrin

106

blood clotting is a

positive feedback mechanism to accelerate the clotting process and reduce blood loss quickly

107

Blood clotting is restricted by (3)

1. anticoagulants such as antithromin-III inhibit thrombin
2. Heparin released by basophils and mast cells activates antithrombin III
3. aspiri prevents platelet aggregation and clot formation but prolongs bleeding

108

clot retraction

pulls torn edges of vessel closer together reducing residual bleeding and stabilizing injury site; reduces size of damage making it easier for fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells to complete repair

109

Fibrinolysis

slows process of dissolving clot; plasmin digests fibrin strands