Chapter 13 Packet Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Packet Review Deck (65):
1

Spinal cord ends between?

L1 and L2

2

Dorsal Root Ganglia

Cell bodies of sensory neurons outside the spinal cord

3

Ventral roots contain?

the axons of motor neurons

4

A spinal nerve is formed when?

the dorsal and ventral roots merge and are bound together

5

Spinal nerves are___nerves; they contain both___&___fibers within a sheath

mixed
sensory and motor

6

How many pairs of spinal nerves?

31

7

A thoracic spinal nerves name reflects the vertebrae just ___it?

Above (I.E. the T1 nerve is just below the T1 vertebrae)

8

A cervical spinal nerve reflects the vertebrae type right____it?

Below (I.E. the C3 nerve is just above the C3 vertebrae)

9

There are___ cervical vertebrae, but ___ cervical nerves

7, 8

10

Lengthening of the spinal cord ends at what age?

4

11

Spinal Meninges

provide physical stability & shock absorption, oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord tissue

12

Dura Mater

"Tough Mother" outermost layer made of fibrous connective tissue

13

Arachnoid Mater

"Spider" middle spinal membrane

14

Arachnoid Trabeculae

network of collagen and elastin fibers

15

Subarachnoid Space

between arachnoid membrane and the pia mater. Contains cerebral spinal fluid

16

CSF, Cerebral Spinal Fluid

absorbs shock, acts as diffusion for gases and nutrients

17

Pia Mater

"delicate mother" innermost layer, very thin

18

Grey Matter

deep to white matter. make up the horns of the spinal cord. consists of: cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons

19

Nuclei

masses of grey matter within the CNS

20

Dorsal horn______nuclei?
Ventral horn______nuclei?

sensory
Motor

21

White matter

superficial tissue of the spinal cord that contains myelinated and unmyelinated axons

22

3 region of ______ in the spinal cord?

white matter

23

Anterior white commissure

regions where axons cross from one side of the spinal cord to the other

24

Tract

bundle of axons in CNS with similar structure and function
short tracts send sensory or motor info within spinal cord
Longer tracts connect the spinal cord with the brain

25

Nerves

a group of axons from many neurons with vascularization throughout three connective tissue layers

26

Epineurium

outermost layer

27

Perineurium

Middle layer, compartmentalize bundles of axons

28

Endoonerurium

innermost layer surrounds individual axons

29

4 steps of peripheral distribution of spinal nerves: Step 1?

!. sympathetic nerve, dorsal ramus and ventral ramus carry senory info through the dorsal root to the somatic and visceral nuclei

30

Step 2 of distribution of spinal nerves?

2. spinal cord interprets info

31

Step 3 of distribution spinal nerves?

3. response info is sent to visceral somatic motor nuclei in the ventral horn

32

Step 4 of distribution of spinal nerves

4. info then travels through ventral root and separated into dorsal, ventral or sympathetic rami

33

Rami Communicantes

white and grey rami together in motor pathway

34

White rami gets its name from?

first branch from the spinal nerve carrying visceral motor fibers to a sympathetic ganglion; mylination gives it a light color

35

Gray rami gets its name from?

unmyelinated, postganglionic fibers that innervate glands and smooth muscles in the body and wall and limbs

36

Dermatome

a map of the body where a region of skin surface is monitered by a single pair of spinal nerves

37

Nerve Plexus

ventral rami of adjacent spinal nerves that lend their fibers and produce a series of compund nerve trunks

38

4 main plexuses?

1. cervical
2. brachial
3. lumbar
4. sacral

39

Name the location and what the Cervical plexus innervates?
Phrenic nerve?

1. C1 - C5
2. innervates muscles of the neck and diaphragm
*phrenic nerve provides nerve supply to the ENTIRE diaphragm

40

Name the location and what the lumbar plexus innervates?

1. T12 - L4
2. innervates the lower limbs and pelvic girdle

41

Name the location and what the sacral plexus innervates

1. L4 - S4
2. innervates the lower limbs

42

2 nerves the sciatic nerve branches into?

fibular and tibial

43

Neuronal Pools

functional groups of interconnected neurons; scattered or localized with a limited number of input sources and output destination

44

The human body has:
? sensory neurons
? motor neurons
? interneurons

10 million sensory
1/2 million motor
20 billion inter

45

Divergence

spread of info from one neuron to several

46

Convergence

many neurons synapse on 1 post synaptic neuron

47

Serial Processing

Sequential process w/info moving from one neuron to another

48

Parallel Processing

Divergence happens first then several neurons can process the some info SIMULTANEOUSLY

49

Reverberation

Causes a pos. feedback loop by further stimulating the presynaptic neuron

50

Reflex

involuntary responses to a stimulis

51

Spinal cord refles

reflex that does not depend on the brain

52

Reflex Arc

the pathway nerve impulses travel when a reflex is elicited; exhibits negative feedback

53

Part 1 of Reflex Arc?

Receptor-detect stimulus and generate impulses (foot on tac)

54

Part 2 of Reflex Arc?

Sensory neurons-transmit a graded potential that leads to an action potential that travels along the dorsal root

55

Part 3 of Reflex Arc?

CNS-contains one or more synapses

56

Part 4 of Reflex Arc?

Motor neurons-transmit impulses from the CNS to the effector through the vental root

57

Part 5 of Reflex Arc?

Effector-performs its characteristic action (pulling foot away from pain)

58

Innate reflex

form during development (chewing, suckling)

59

Acquired Reflexes

learned motor patterns enhanced by repetition (driving a car)

60

Stretch Reflexes

muscle that is stretched will automatically contract. Always monosynaptic

61

4 Steps of Stretch Reflex?

1. muscle spindles are stretched
2. sensory neurons get excited
3. motor neurons are stimulated
4. rapid muscle contraction to return muscle spindle to resting state

62

Tendon Reflexes

Polysynaptic; monitors tension on tendon

63

Withdrawal Reflexes

Polysynaptic; move effected body parts away from stimulus. It is triggered by pain

64

Flexor Reflex

Polysynaptic; painful stimulus will automatically cause the effected part to recoil

65

Crossed Extensor Reflexes

Polysynaptic; the motor response occurs on the side opposite the stimulus