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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (67):
1

Afferent division of Nervous System

receptors, sensory neurons and sensory pathways

2

SNS

motor neuron, motor pathways, and effectors

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General Senses

sensitivity to temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration and proprioception
TPTPVP

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Sensation

the arriving info in the form of an action potential; the greater the stimulus the higher the frequency of action potential

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Preception

conscious awareness of sensation

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special senses

olfaction, vision, gustation, hearing and equilibrium

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List of stimuli or modality

light, sound, touch, dissolved chemicals and pressure

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receptor specificity / free nerve endings

dendrites of neurons which are the simplest form of a receptor, not protected by accessory cells; extend through tissue like growing grass; typically not very specific

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Receptors of the eyes

protected by accessory cells and connective tissue making them very specific because no other stimulus but light can get to them

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Receptor Field

receptor cells monitor a specific area

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sensory coding translates sensory info into patterns of ___ ____ can be: ___,___, or both depending on the complexity of the reception

action potential
tonic, phasic

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Tonic Receptors

alway active and indicate the background level of stimulation, modifies action potentials when a stimulus changes in intensity; do not adapt well

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Phasic Receptors

normally inactive but become active for a short time when a stimulus changes the environment they are monitoring; senses intensity and rate of change of a stimulus; highly adaptive

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Adaptation

a reduction in sensitivity when there is constant stimulus that does not induce pain

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Fast adapting receptors (phasic receptors)

provides peripheral adaptation ...the receptor responds strongly at first but then its activity declines (temperature)

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slow adapting recptors (tonic receptors)

have little peripheral adaptation. pain receptors are slow adapting reminds you of the pain so you can do something about it

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central adaptation

further restricts the amount of detail arriving at the cerebral cortex beyond peripheral adaptation

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Both peripheral and central adaptations are ___ responses that can induce ___ ____ responses (typically we are not aware of the stimulus or response)

subconscious
reflexive motor

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The ___ ___ allow us to have control over whether or not we want to further heighten our awareness to a stimulus or ____ our awareness

higher centers
lower

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Exteroceptors monitor

outside environment

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proprioceptors monitor

positions of skeletal muscles and joints

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interoceptors monitor

visceral organs

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nociceptors
common locations

pain receptors
skin, joints, periosteum, walls of blood vessels

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Fast pain - myelinated type ___ axon fibers carry ___ ___sensations quickly to the CNS; ____ pain and trigger ____ reflexes

A
Prickeling Pain
localized
somatic

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Slow pain- type___ axons fibers carry ___ or ____ pain sensations to the ___; pain is in a general area. Sensitive to extreme: ___, ___ ___, ___ ____ (from damaged cells

C
burning, aching
temperature, mechanical damage, dissolved chemicals

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Neurotransmitters affect pain levels (glutamate or substance P)

amounts of these neurotransmitters can determine the amount of pain perceived. May be out of proportion with painful stimuli

27

Neuromodulators affect pain levels, type of opioids: endorphins and enkephalins

inhibit activity along pain pathways by preventing the release of substance P so the pain perception decreases even though the stimulus is still there

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Thermoreceptors common locations

dermis, skeletal muscle, liver and hypothalamus

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Type of thermoreceptors

free nerve endings with cold receptors being 3 to 4 times more numerous than warm receptors; follow pain paths to the CNS; phasic

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Mechanoreceptors

respond to stimuli that distorts the plasma membrane

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Type of Mechanoreceptors

tactile, baroreceptors and proprioreceptors

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Tactile receptors are sensitive to?

touch, pressure, vibration

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Fine touch and pressure receptors

extremely sensitive to provide info on location, shape, size, texture and movement with small receptor field (fingers)

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Crude touch and pressure receptors

large receptive field giving poor info on location and stimulus

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Free Nerve Endings sensitive to?

touch and preasure

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location of free nerve endings?

between epidermal cells and the cornea of the eye, tonic, receptor field small

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Root Hair Plexus Nerve Endings sensitive to?

distortion of hair

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Root hair plexus location

wrapped around root of hair, phasic and small receptor field

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Tactile Discs (merkel discs) sensitive to

fine touch ad pressure (really sensitive)

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Tactile disc location

stratum basale, tonic, small receptor field

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Tactile corpuscles (meissner's corpuscles) sensitive to?

fine touch and pressure, low vibrations

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Tactile corpuscles located in

dermis of: eyelids, finger tips, lips, nipples and external genitalia
phasic

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structure of tactile corpuscles

encapsulated

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lamellated corpuscles (pacinian carpuscles) sensitive to?

deep pressure, vibrations

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Lamellated located in?

dermis of: fingers, mammory glands, external genitalia, joint capsules and viscerally
phasic (because itss encapsulated)

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Lamellated struture

concentric layers of collagen

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Ruffini Corpuscles sensitive to

pressure, distortion of the skin, respond to twisting, tonic

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Ruffini location?

reticular layer of dermis

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Barorecptors

detect pressure changes in the walls of blood vessels and organs

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Baroreceptors location

walls of distensible organs

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Baroreceptor is a ___ receptor

free nerve ending

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Baroreceptors are sensitive to ___ or ____ of ___ ___in the wall of an organ; moniters ___ ___ and ___ ___

coiling or expanding
elastic tissue
blood flow and blood pressure

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Poprioceptors

monitor positions of joints and muscles

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Golgi Tendon Organs

between muscle and its tendon, reacts to tension in the tendon to monitor muscle contraction

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Receptors in joint capsules

free nerve ending detect pressure, tension and movement in joint

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chemoreceptors

chemoreceptive neurons provide quick peripheral adaptation, sensitive to concentration of chemicals that dissolve in body fluids (id gasses, CO2)

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Somatic Sensory Pathways

the first part of the tract name ids where the tract begins the last part=its destination

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Somatic Sensory ascending tracts

from spinal chord to brain

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phantom limb pain

painful sensations that aren't really there due to sensory neurons or interneurons along the pathway

60

spino-thalamic pathway

crude touch and pressure in the anterior, pain and temperature in the lateral

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Referred pain

pain felt in uninjured part of body but originates elsewhere...happen because visceral neurons can stimulate neurons in your spidalphelamic pathway

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Posterior column pathway

fine touch, vibration, pressure and proprioceptions sensations

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spinocerebellar pathway

proprioceptive input from golgi tendon organs, muscle spindles and joint capsules

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Somatic Motor Pathways

sns controls voluntary motor movements

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corticospinal pathway

voluntary control over skeletal muscles

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medial pathway

subconscious regulation of balance and muscle tone, eye, head, neck and upper limb position when exposed to auditory or visual and reflexive activity

67

Lateral Pathway

subconscious regulation of upper limb muscle tone and movement