Chapter 14 Packet Review Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Chapter 14 Packet Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 Packet Review Deck (110):
1

Ventricles

four cavities within the brain lined with ependymal cells

2

Lateral Ventricles are separated by the?

septum pellucidum

3

Third ventricle connects to the lateral ventricles by the?

interventricular foramen

4

fourth ventricle connects to the 3ed by the____? and is continuous with the _____? of the spinal cord?

cerebral aquaduct
central canal

5

Choroid plexus

Capillary network found within the ventricles that forms cerebral spinal fluid, the tissue fluid of the CNS

6

Cerebral Spinal Fluid

Cushion and floats the brain
diffusion of gasses
you produce 2 cups per day, replaced every eight hours

7

Arachnoid granulations

absords old CSF; if it is blocked it can cause hydrocephalus

8

Flow of CSF?

lateral ventricle and third ventricle -4th ventricle - central canal of spinal cord - cranial and spinal subarachnoid spaces

9

Capillary cells joined by___ in the blood brain barrier?

tight junctions

10

Astrocytes

provide chemical messages to control permeability of the capillaries

11

High amounts of ____ are readily transported for a constant energy supply

glucose

12

Small amounts of what are allowed through the blood brain barrier?

epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine

13

Blood CSF Barrier

specialized ependymal cells connected by tight junctions and surround choroid plexus

14

4 Exception to the blood brain barrier

hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland, choroid plexus

15

Dura Mater is _____ layered? Outer layer connecting to the ___ of the skull, leaving no____?

double layered
periostium
epideral space

16

Dura Folds

dura mater dips into creases of the brain

17

falx cerbri

between cerebral hemisphere

18

tentorium cerebelli

separates cerebrum from cerebellum

19

falx cerebelli

cerebellar hemispheres

20

arachnoid mater

lacy network similar to spinal cord

21

pia mater

adheres to the surface of the brain by astrocytes, extends into folds of the brain

22

3 things that protect brain tissue?

1. meninges in the cell act as seat belt and holds brain in place
2.blood brain barrier (like shatter proof glass) limits permeability
3. CSF (like airbag) cushions, floats the brain and allows diffusion of necessary chemicals

23

*5 functions of the medulla oblongata to KNOW?

1. links brain to spinal cord
2. regulates heart rate & force of contraction
3. regulates distribution of blood flow
4. sets the pace of respiratory movement
5. relays and integrates visceral sensory info to the ANS

24

3 functions of the pons?

1. Receives sensory info and returns motor info to the jaw muscles, anterior surface of face, eye muscles, and internal ear
2. modifies breathing rhythm set by the medulla oblongata through the apneustic and pneumotaxic centers
3. Relays info to and from cerebellum

25

Autonomic processing center is the?

Cerebellum

26

Cerebellum location?

large posterior, inferior regions of the brain

27

Functions of Cerebellum?

balance and equilibrium (refines learned movement patterns to make them smooth)

28

Midbrain; superior colliculus of the corpora quadrigemina?

reflex movements of: eyes, head, neck and trunck in response to visual stimuli

29

Midbrain; Inferiour colliculus of the corpora quadrigemina?

auditory reflex, movement of head, neck and trunck in response to an auditory stimulus

30

Midbrain; Reticular activating system

makes you more alert and attentive

31

Midbrain; Subconscious control

upper limb position and muscle tone

32

Diencephalon

integrates sensory info with motor output at the subconscious level; includes the epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland

33

Pineal Gland

endocrine structure, secretes melatonin which regulates sleep/wake cycles and reproductive cycles

34

Thalamus Location?

superior to the hypothalamus; right and left thalamus is separated by the 3rd ventricle

35

What determines the thalamus function?

thalamic nuclei groups

36

Thalamus function; Anterior group responsible for?

limbic which involves emotion and motivation

37

Thalamus function; medial group

awareness of emotions by connecting the hypothalamus to the frontal lobes

38

Thalamus Function; Ventral group relays sensory info about?

touch, pressure, pain, temperature and proprioception

39

Thalamus, anterior group?

resposible for limbic which is emotion and motivation

40

Thalamus function; Lateral group affects emotional states by connecting the____ system to the ______lobes of the cerebrum

Limbic
Parietal

41

Hypothalamus, the_____gland?
Location

master
in the floor of the 3rd ventricle superior to the pituitary gland; a stalk connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

42

Mamillary bodies

"brain boobs" olefactory sensations and reflex movements associated with: eating, licking, chewing and swallowing

43

The hypothalamus can be stimulated by what 3 processes?

1. sensory info from cerebrum, brain stem, spinal cord
2. changes in the CSF and interstitial fluid
3. Chemical stimuli in blood since there is not BBB here

44

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#1

subconscious control of skeletal muscle contraction (sexual movement)

45

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#2

adjusts/coordinates heart rate, blood pressure, respiration...

46

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#3

Produces/secretes hormones that regulate hormone production in pituitary

47

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#4

Secretes antidiuretic hormone/keeps you hydrated. synthesizes oxytocin which stimulates muscle contractions in the reproduction organs

48

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#5

sweating/shivering=temp. regulation
controls vasodialation and v-constriction

49

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#6

regulates hunger and thirst

50

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#7

Integrates ANS functions: fight or flight

51

Functions of the Hypothalamus
#8

controls body rhythms like sleep and mood cycles

52

The Limbic System is your _______ system?

motivational

53

Location of Limbic system?

between cerebrum and the diencephalon; a functional grouping (not anatomical)

54

4 Functions of the Limbic system
#1

Processing memories, creation of emotion and motivation

55

Functions of the Limbic system
#2

Rage, fear, pain, pleasure/sexual arousal

56

Functions of the Limbic system
#3

amygdala regulates heart rate, fight or flight response and links emotion with memory

57

Functions of the Limbic system
#4

hipocampus=how you learn
storage and retrival of new long term memories (like learning this shizz)

58

Cerebrum is the ___ part of the brain?

largest

59

The cerebrum has ____ _____ separated by the ____ _____?

Two hemispheres
longitudinal fissure

60

The cerebrum is connected by the___ _____?

corpus collosum

61

Each hemisphere of the cerebrum houses a ___ ____?

lateral ventricle

62

Function of the cerebrum

Receives sensory info and sends motor info to opposite sides of the body: Two hemispheres, each with completely different functins

63

Cerebral Cortex

grey matter=cell bodies of neurons

64

grey matter

cell bodies of neurons make it grey

65

Gyri

estensive folds of cerebral oortex creates more surface area (2.5 sq.ft.)

66

Sulci

grooves between gyri

67

White matter

medula brain; myelinated axons and dendrites that connect the lobes of the cerebrum together

68

Association Fibers

connect areas of the cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere

69

arcuate fibers

short and curved, pass from one gyris to another

70

Longitudinal Fasicule

long association fibers that connect the frontal lobe to other lobes in the same hemisphere

71

commissural fibers

allow communication between hemispheres

72

corpus callosum

200 million neurons that connect the right and left sides of the brain

73

Projection fibers

link the cerebral cortex to the diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum and spinal cord

74

Basal Nuclei are paired masses of ____ ____ matter within the ___ ____ of the ____ ______?

gray matter
white matter
cerebral hemispheres

75

The function of the basal nuclei?

subconscious voluntary movement working in conjunction with the cerebellum
Regulates muscle tone and coordinates accessory movements (I.E. arms swinging when walking)

76

What causes Parkinson's Disease?

basal nuclei is inhibited by dopamine, if this fails the basal nuclei overreact and cause increased muscle tone

77

With Parkinson's Disease ___ movements are difficult to start because_____muscle groups do not ____

voluntary
opposing
relax (they have to be over powered)

78

The frontal lobe is located in the ___ ___ of the ___ ?

anterior half
cerebrum

79

Function of the frontal lobe?

motor and premotor areas

80

Primary motor cortex

responsible for voluntary movement. The large portion is dedicated to precise movements of the face and hands

81

The left side of the primary motor cortex controls movement on the ____ side of the body (& visa versa)

Right

82

Premotor Cortes

learned motor movements that require a sequence of movements. It is not a reflex but you perform the task without thinking about it like tying your shoes

83

Speech Center

in Left frontal lobe, controls muscle to move mouth for speaking, breathing and vocalization

84

Prefrontal Cortex

predicts consequences of future events with feelings of: frustration, tension and anxiety (totally what you are feeling right now!)

85

Prefrontal coxtex control ____, intellectual functions, like: ___, ___, & ____

conscious
speech, writing & math

86

Lobotomy

removal of a part of the prefrontal cortes to alleviate feeling of frustration, tension or anxiety; left w/o tact; now drugs replace this procedure

87

Parietal lobe is located ____ to frontal lobes and _____ to temporal lobes

posterior
superior

88

Parietal lobes function is?

sensory

89

Primary sensory cortex

receives impulses from receptors in the skin to interpret changes in the environment

90

The primary sensory cortex also receives impulses from____ ____ in muscles, resulting in ____ ____ ____

stretch receptors
conscious muscle sense

91

somatic sensory association areas

monitors activity of primary sensory cortex to help you recognize a stimulus so you can respond (mostly for face and hands)

92

The Temporal Lobe is on the ______ sides of the cerebrum

Lateral

93

The temporal lobe function?

sensory and speech

94

Olfactory areas receive impulse from the ___ ___ for ____

naval cavity
smell

95

Auditory areas receive impulses from the ___ ___ for ___ and ____ _____

inner ear
hearing & word recognition

96

Insula is located ____ to the ___ ____?

medial
lateral sulcus

97

Insula's function is?

sensory

98

Gustatory Cortex

taste

99

Occipital lobe is located in the ____ section of the cerebrum, ___ to the cerebellum

posterior
superior

100

The Occipital lobe function?

vision, spatial relationships (judging distance)

101

visual association area

interprut what it sees then sends the info to the thinking part of the cerebrum to be acted on (I.E. reading and understanding it)

102

auditory association area

interprut what it hears then sends info to thinking part of the cerebrum to be acted on

103

General interpretive areas are areas of the____ that provide ____ by integrating ___ ___ with visual and auditory memories

cerebrum
personality
sensory info

104

Hemispheric Lateralization:
Left hemisphere?

dominant
language based skills, reading, writing, hand movement control for right handed people, LOGIC...

105

Hemispheric Lateralization:
Right hemisphere?

sensory relationships, id objects using senses, face recognition and emotional context for conversation

106

12 Cranial Nerves (PNS)

see other deck
oh oh oh to touch a female vagina gives vinny a hard on!
some say marry money but my brother says big brains matter most!

107

Thalamus, medial group

awareness of emotional states by connecting the hypothalamus to the frontal lobes

108

Thalamus, ventral group

relays sensory info: touch, pressure, pain, temperature and proprioception to the areas of the cerebral cortex

109

Thalamus, Posterior group

integrates sensory info to project to the association areas of the cerebral cortex; receives visual info from the optic tract and relays auditory info to cerebral cortex from the inner ear

110

Thalamus, Lateral group

affects emotional states by connecting the limbic system to the parietal lobes of the cerebrum