Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (62):
1

Special Senses are comprised of:

olfaction, gustation, vision, equilibrium and hearing

2

Olfaction

sense of smell

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Olfaction organs

paired; located in the nasal cavity on either side of the nasal septum; consists of olfactory epithelium and lamina propria

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Olfactory receptors

dendrites of neurons found in the olfactory epithelium

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the knob of the olfactory receptor houses ___ cilia that are exposed to _____.

20
odorants

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Basal Cells

regenerative stem cells that replace receptor cells

7

Olfactory glands

found in lamina purpria; secretions absorb water and form a thick colored mucous

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Central adaptation

causes you to lose awareness of certain smells, but allows you to have sensitivities to other smells

9

Olfaction pathway

an odorant binds to a receptor protein

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Lingual papillae

epithelial projections that house the taste buds

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filliform papillae

provide friction, no taste buds

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fungiform papillae

5 taste buds each

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cicumvallate

form v in back of tongue 100 taste buds each

14

Gustatory Pathway

1.binds to receptor proteins...see notes

15

there are ___ primary taste sensations: ___ and ____ on the ___ part of the tongue and ___ and ___ on the ____of the tongue

4
sweet and salty, anterior
sour and bitter, posterior

16

Umami

beef, chicken broth and parmesan cheese due to free glutamates present in circumvallate

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____ receptors located primarily in the ___ and affect water balance and blood volume maintenance

water
pharynx

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Lacrimal canaliculi

canals that further drain tears to the lacrimal sac

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lacrimal sac

receives tears and sends them to the nasolacrimal duct

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nasolacrimal canal

passageway in the facial bones that takes tears to the nasal cavity

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three layers of the eye

outer fibrous, intermediate vascular and deep inner fibrous: sclera and cornea

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sclera

white of eye where intrinsic eye muscles attach

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cornea

transparent and avascular; gets nutrients from tears; free nerve ending making it sensitive
(easy transplant, avascular)

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Vascular Layer

iris ciliary body and choroid

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Iris

contains smooth muscle for pupil diameter changes pigmented and highly vascularized

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cilliary body

contains ciliary muscles that attach to and control the shape of lens using suspensory ligaments

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choroid

layer between sclera and retina; vascularized and contains melanin

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inner layer

retina and optic nerve

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retina

pigmented outermost layer and innervated innermost layer, contains photoreceptors that detect light

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rods

give us black and white vision for night vision

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the lens

focuses the visual image on the photoreceptors

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crystallins

transparent proteins responsible for clarity and the focusing power of the lens

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cataracts

loss of transparency; can be removed

34

refractions

the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another medium of a different density

35

a visual image results from

info from all receptors

36

light must strike the ___ in precise order to form an image of the object

retina

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Greatest amount of refraction occurs as light enters the ___ ?

cornea

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a second refractions occurs as light passes from the __ ___ to the ___

aqueous humor
lens

39

focal point is the specific point of _____ on the ____

intersection
retina

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focal distance is the distance between the center of the ___ and the ___ ____

lens
focal point

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the closer the object is to the lens the ___ the focal distance

greater

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the rounder the lens the more ____occurs which leads to a ____ focal distance; a flat lens leads to a ____ focal distance

refraction
shorter
longer

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Accommodation

the automatic adjustment of the eye for clear vision; ciliary muscles adjust the shape of the lens for clarity

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astigmatism

is a distortion of an image if light is not refracted properly

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colorblindness

dysfuntioning cone

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night blindness (nyctalopia)

caused by definciency in bit A. visual pigment reserves decline

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depth perception

an interpretation of objects viewed by both eyes that receive slightly different visual images

48

binocular vision

images from the right and left eye overlap/ the combined vision is binocular vision...these images cross over and are received by the opposite side of the occipital lobe

49

Inner ear

fluid filled cavity that holds the receptors for both hearing and balance

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bony labyrinth

dense bone surrounding membranous labyrinth with perilymph fluid between the two

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endolymph

middle air / inner fluid

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vestibule

contain membranous sacs called the saccule and utricle

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saccule and utricle

both have receptors for gravity and linear excelleration

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semicircular canals

contain recptors stimulated by rotation of the head. the fluid within is continuous with the fluid in the vestibule

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cochlea

spiral shaped bony chamber that holds the cochlear duct of the membranous labyrinth; receptors here responsible for hearing

56

round window

free of dense bone, it is a thin membranous partition separation the paralymph of the cochlear chamber from air filled middle chamber

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oval window

free of dense bone, connected to base of stapes

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equilibrium

vestibule and semicircular canals

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semicircular ducts

respond to rotation of head

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hair cells

sensory, semicircular ducts, rotational head movements, found in cristae of ampulla and bound to a cupola

61

stereocilia

short hairs, free surface of ea. hair cell 80-100 per cell

62

cochlear duct contains

endolymph which lies between a pair of perilymph chambers (scala vestibuli and scala tympani