Flashcards in Chapter 19 Upper Limb Development Deck (27):
Lateral plate mesoderm forms the s___________ and v___________ components of the developing limb bud, while mesoderm from the somites forms the m______________.
Skeletal, vasculature, musculature
FGF produced by the apical ectodermal ridge stimulate m_________, while Wnt7 directs limb o___________ along the d_________-v___________ axis.
Mitosis, organization dorsal-ventral
The zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) produces S __ __ that directs anterior / posterior organization and activates the gene for B__ __ and Hox __ through __ genes. R__________ acid also plays a role in UE development.
Shh, BMP, 9 - 13, retanoic acid
Digit formation results from selected a_____________. Name three molecular factors at work in digit formation in the AER.
3. Retanoic acid receptors
The proximal R subclavian is formed from the f________ a____________ arch.
Fourth aortic arch
The s______________ i______________ aa forms the distal R subclavian aa an the l_____ s_____________ aa.
Seventh intersegmental, left subclavian
The major aa in the limb bud at four weeks is the a_______ aa
The post. interosseous aa and an artery called the median form before the r_________ and u_________ aa
Radial and ulnar
The axis aa persists as these four aa.
Axillary, brachial, ant. interosseous and deep palmar arch.
The upper limb bud lies opposite somites C___ - ___, T___ -____
The ant. and post. condensation form during week _____.
During the condensation mesoderm becomes m_________ which fuse and become m___________
Myoblasts, multinucleated myotubules.
The posterior condensation gives rise to e___________ and s__________ muscles.
Name the 19 muscles that arise from the posterior condensation.
1. Deltiod, 2. supraspinatus, 3. infraspinatus, 4&5. teres major and minor, 6. subscapularis, 7. triceps brachii, 8. anconeus, 9. brachioradialis, 10&11. ex. carpi radialis longus and brevis, 12. ex. digitorum, 13. ex. digiti minimi, 14. ex. carpi ulnaris, 15. supinator, 16. abdtr. pollicus, 17&18. ex. pollicus brevis and 19. longus, ex. indicis.
The anterior condensation gives rise to muscles of p__________, and the f_________ muscles.
Name the 21 muscles to which the anterior condensation gives rise to.
1. Biceps brachii, 2. Brachialis, 3. Coracobrachialis, 4. Pronator teres, 5. F. Carpi radialis, 6. Palmaris longus, 7. F. Carpi ulnaris, 8. F. Digitorum superficialis, 9. F. Digitorum profundus, 10. F. Pollicus brevis, 11. F. Pollicus longus, 12. Pronator quadratus, 13. Abdtr. Pollicus brevis, 14. Abdtr. Digiti minimi, 15. F. Digiti minimi brevis, 16. Opponens pollicus, 17. Addtr. pollicus, 18. F. Digiti minimi brevis, 18. Opponens digiti minimi, 19. Lumbricales, 20&21. Dorsal and palmar interossei
Name the order for the development of the structures of the brachial plexus.
Roots, trunks, division (ant. & post.), cords, branches.
The rotation of the upper limb occurs during week ___ - ___
The upper limb rotates ______ degrees l_________
90 degrees laterally
The absence of the ZPA determines what?
The growth of the thumb. A bud with ZPAs on both edges develops polydactylity featuring two 5th digits.
The nerves of the brachial plexus originate from the n_______ t_____.
Name the bones that form from the lateral plate mesoderm ( 8 items ).
Scapula, clavicle, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
Hyaline cartilage models of the bones form during week _____.
Primary ossification centers are seen in which UE bones first and during which week(s).
Primary ossification - clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna
During weeks 7 - 9
Primary ossification begins in the d___________ and is called o____________.
After week _____ , primary ossification centers can be found in the scapula, metacarpals and phalanges. Secondary ossification, and the ossification of the carpals takes place during ____________.