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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (71)
1

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space

2

Weight

The pull of gravity on mass

3

States of Matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas

4

Energy

The capacity to do work or put matter into motion

5

Types of Energy

Kinetic
Potential

6

Forms of Energy

Chemical- stored in bonds of chemical substances
Electrical- Results from movement of charged particles
Mechanical- Directly involved in moving matter
Radiant- Travels in waves (ultraviolet light)

7

Energy form Conversion

-May be converted from one form to another
-Conversion is inefficient (some energy is lost as heat)

8

Elements

Matter is elements
Cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods

9

Human Body Elements (4)

Oxygen
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
96% of the human body

10

Atoms (overall)

Building blocks for each element
Gives each element its physical and chemical properties
Smallest particles of an element with properties of that element

11

Atoms (make-up)

composed of subatomic particles- protons, neutrons, and electrons
Protons and Neutrons found in nucleus
Electrons orbit nucleus in an electron cloud

12

Atom (nucleus)

Almost entire mass of the atom
Neutrons- Carry no charge
Protons- Carry positive charge

13

Atom (electrons)

Electrons orbit within electron cloud
-carry a negative charge
-1/2000 the mass of a proton
-number of protons and electrons always equal

14

Atom (models)

Planetary model-2D simplified; outdated
Orbital model-3D current model, used by chemists

15

Isotyopes

Structural variations of atoms
Differ in the number of neutrons they contain
Atomic numbers same; mass numbers different

16

Atomic Weight

Average of mass numbers (relative weights) of all isotopes of an atom

17

Molecule vs. Compound

Molecule- 1 type
Compound- multiple types (at least 1)

18

Mixtures

Two or more components physically intermixed
-most matter exists as mixture

19

3 Types of Mixtures

Solutions
Colloids
Suspensions

20

Solutions

Homogeneous mixtures
Solvent- greatest substance, if a liquid; usually water
Solute- present in smaller amounts

21

Colloids

Heterogeneous mixtures
Larger solute particles do not settle out

22

Suspensions

Heterogeneous mixtures (blood)
Large, visible solutes settle out

23

Mixtures Vs. Compounds

Mixture:
-No chemical bonding between components
-Can be separated
-Heterogeneous or Homogeneous
Compound:
-Chemical bonding between components
-Can be separated
-All are homogeneous

24

Chemical Bonds

Energy relationships
Electrons can occupy up to 7 electron shells
Electrons in Valence Shell (outermost electron shell)
-have most potential energy
-are chemically reactive electrons

25

Chemically Inert Elements

Stable and unreactive
Valence shell fully occupied or contains eight electrons
Noble Gases

26

Chemically Reactive Elements

Valence shell not full
Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons (form bonds) with other atoms achieve stability

27

Types of Chemical Bonds (3)

Ionic
Covalent
Hydrogen

28

Ionic Bonds

Ions
-atoms gain or lose electrons and becomes charged
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another forms ions
-Anion (negative charge)
-- atoms gains at least one electron
-Cation (positive charge)
-- atoms loses at least one electron

29

Ionic Compounds

Most ionic compounds are salts
-when dry salts form crystals instead of individual molecules
Ex. NaCl (sodium chloride)

30

Covalent Bonds

Formed by sharing of two or more electrons
Allows each atom to fill its valence shell at least part of the time

31

Ionic Vs. Covalent

Ionic- giving
Covalent- sharing

32

Hydrogen Bonds

Attractive force between electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule
-not true bond
-common in water
-also acts as intramolecular bonds, holding a large molecule in a 3D shape

33

Chemical Reactions

Occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
-Reaction is the combination of formed, rearranged, or broken

34

Patterns of Chemical Reactions

Synthesis (combination) reaction
Decomposition reactions
Exchange reactions

35

Synthesis Reactions

A + B = AB
-Atoms or molecules combine to form larger, more complex molecule
-Always involve bond formation
-Anabolic

36

Decomposition Reactions

AB = A + B
-Molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms
--Reverse of synthesis reactions
-Involving breaking of bonds
-Catabolic

37

Exchange Reactions

AB + C = AC + B
-Also called displacement reactions
-Involve both synthesis and decomposition
-Bonds are both made and broken

38

Energy Flow in Chemical Reactions
Two Types

All chemical reactions are either exergonic or endergonic
-Exergonic Reactions- Exer- Exit leaving
--net release of energy
--products have less potential energy than reactants
--catabolic and oxidative reactions
-Endergonic Reactions- Ender- Enter gaining/absorbing
--net absorption or energy
--products have more potential energy than reactants
--Anabolic reactions

39

Reversibility of Chemical Reactions

Chemical equilibrium
AB = A + B
A + B = AB
Many biological reactions are essentially irreversible
-due to energy requirements
-due to removal of products

40

Rate of Chemical Reactions

Affected by
-Rising Temperature = Rising Rate
-Rising Concentration of Reactant = Rising Rate
-Lowering Particle Size= Rising Rate
-Catalysts: Rising Rate without being chemically changed or part of product
--enzymes are biological catalysts

41

Biochemistry

Study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter
All chemicals either organic or inorganic

42

Classes of Compounds

Inorganic- water, salts,and many acids and bases; does not contain carbon
Organic- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids; contains carbon
Both equally essential for life

43

Water in Living Organisms

Most abundant inorganic compound
Most important inorganic compound
-due to water's properties

44

Properties of Water

High heat capacity
-absorbs and release heat with little temperature change
-prevents sudden changes in temperature
High heat evaporation
-evaporation requires large amounts of heat
-useful cooling mechanism
Polar solvent properties
-universal solvent
-dissolves and dissociates ionic substances
-body's major transport medium
Cushioning
-protects certain organs from physical trauma (cerebrospinal fluid)

45

Salts

Ionic compounds that dissociate into ions in water
-ions (electrolytes) conduct electrical currents in solution
-ions plat specialized roles in body functions
-ionic balance vital for homeostasis

46

Acids and Bases

Both are electrolytes
Acids- proton donors
- release in H+ solution
Bases- proton acceptors
-Take up H+ from solution

47

pH: Acid base Concentration

-Free H+ of a solution measured on pH scale
-As free H+ increases, acidity increases
-As free H+ decreases alkalinity increases
pH= negative logarithm of H+ in mole per liter
pH scare ranges from 0-14

48

pH: Levels

Acidic Solutions
-rising H+, lower pH
-acidic pH = 0- 6.99
Neutral Solutions
- equal number of H+ and OH-
- All neutral solutions are pH 7
-pure water is pH neutral
Alkaline (basic) Solutions
-lowering H+, higher pH
-Alkaline pH = 7.01-14

49

Neutralization

Mixing acids and bases
-forming water and a salt
-neutralization reaction

50

Acid-Base Homeostasis

-pH change interferes with cell function and may damage living tissue
-Even slight change in pH can be fatal
-pH is regulated by kidneys, lungs, and chemical buffers

51

Organic Compounds

Molecules that contain carbon
-except CO2 and Co, which are considered inorganic
-Carbon is electroneutral
Unique to living systems
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

52

Carbohydrates

Sugars and starches
Polymers
Three classes:
-Monosaccharides
-Disaccharides
-Polysaccharides
Function- cellular fuel
-Ex. glucose

53

Disaccharides

Double sugars
Too large to pass through cell membranes
Important disaccharides
-sucrose
-maltose
-lactose

54

Polysaccharides

Polymers of monosaccharides
Important polysaccharides
-starch and glycogen
Not very soluble

55

Lipids

Insoluble in water
Main Types:
-Triglycerides or neutral fats
-Phospholipids
-Steroids
-Eicosanoids

56

Triglycerides

Energy storage
Insulation
Protection

57

Phospholipids

Important in cell membrane structure

58

Steroids

Interlocking 4-ring structure
Cholesterol, vitamin D, steroid hormones, and bile salts
Most important steroid is Cholesterol

59

Eicosanoids

Prostaglandin (most important eicosanoid
-Role in blood clotting, control of blood pressure, inflammation, and labor contractions

60

Other Lipids in the Body

Other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
Lipoproteins- transport fats in the blood

61

Proteins

Proteins are polymers
Amino acids (20 types) are the monomers in proteins

62

Fibrous Proteins

-Structural
-Strandlike, water-insoluble, and stable
-Provide mechanical support and tensile strength
-Ex. keratin, elastin, collagen

63

Globular Proteins

-Functional
-3D structure
-Specific functional regions (active sites)
-Ex. antibodies, hormones, molecular chaperons, and enzymes

64

Protein Denaturation

Proteins unfold and lose function-active sites destroyed
Can be caused by decreased pH or increased temperature
Usually reversible if normal conditions restore
Irreversible if changes extreme
-Ex. Cooking an egg

65

Enzymes

Proteins that act as biological catalysts
-regulate and increase speed of chemical reactions
Lower the activation energy, increase the speed of a reaction

66

Characteristics of Enzymes

Usually end in -ase
Often named for the reaction they catalyze
-Ex. hydrolases, oxidases

67

Nucleic Acids

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
largest molecules in the body

68

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

Located within the nucleus
Utilizes 4 nitrogen bases
-Adenine (A), Guanine (G)
-Cytosine (C), Thymine (T)
--base pair rule- each base pair with its complementary base (A and T); (G and C)
Double-stranded helical molecule (double helix) in the cell nucleus
Provides instructions for all protein synthesis
Replicates before cell division ensuring genetic continuity

69

Ribonucleic RNA

Located outside the nucleus
Utilizes 4 nitrogen bases
-Cytosine (C), Guanine (G)
-Adenine (A), Uracil (U)
Single-stranded molecule
Three varieties of RNA carry out the DNA orders for protein synthesis

70

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Chemical energy in glucose captured in this important molecule
Directly powers chemical reactions in cells
Energy form immediately usable by all body cells
Structure of ATP
-Adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with two additional phosphate groups

71

Function of ATP

Phosphorylation:
-Terminal phosphates are enzymatically transferred to and energize other molecules
-Such "primed" molecules perform cellular work (life processes) using the phosphate bond energy