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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (68)
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Tissues

Groups of cells similar in structure that perform common or related function

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Examples of Nervous Tissues

Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves

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Examples of Muscles Tissues

Skeletal , Cardiac, Smooth

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Examples of Epithelial Tissues

Lining of digestive tract organs and other hollow organs, skin surface

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Examples of Connective Tissue

Bones, Tendons, Fat and other soft padding

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Epithelial Tissues (Epithelium)

Forms boundaries
Two main types (by location)
-Covering and lining epithelium
-Glandular epithelium

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Epithelial Functions

Protection
Absorption
Filtration
Excretion
Secretion
Sensory Reception

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Characteristics of Epithelial

Orientation
Specialized contacts
Supported by connective tissues
Avascular, but innervated
Can regenerate

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Orientation of Epithelial Tissue

2 surfaces
-Apical- upper, free surface, exposed to exterior or cavity
-Basal- lower, attached
Both surfaces differ in structure and function

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Apical Surface

Smooth and slick
Most have microvilli to increase surface area
Some have cilia

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Basal Lamina

Adhesive sheet
Scaffolding for cell migration in wound repair

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Specialized Contacts of Epithelial Tissue

Form continuous sheets
Specialized contacts bind adjacent cells
-Tight Junctions
-Desmosomes

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Support of Epithelial

Connective Tissue
-Network of collage
Basement Membrane
-Basal lamina and reticular lamina
-Resists stretching and tearing
-Defines epithelial boundary

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Avasularity with Epithelial Tissue

No blood vessels
Supplied by nerve cells

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Regeneration in Epithelial Tissue

Highly regenerative
Stimulated by loss of apical-basal and lateral contacts

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Classification of Epithelia

All have 2 names
One indicates number of cell layers
-Simple epithelia- single layer of cells
-Stratified epithelia- two or more layers of cells
--Shape can change in different layers
One indicates shape of cell
-Squamous
-Cuboidal
-Columnar
In Stratified epithelia, epithelia is classified by cell shape in apical layer

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Squamous Cells

-Flattened and scalelike
-Nucleus flattened

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Cuboidal Cells

-Boxlike
-Nucleus elongated

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Columnar Cells

-Tall; column shaped
-Nucleus elongated

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Simple Epithelia

Absorption
Secretion
Filtration

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Stratified Epithelial Tissues

Two or more cell layers
Regenerated from below
More durable than simple epithelia
Protection is major role

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Most widespread of stratified epithelia
Free surface squamous
Deeper layers cuboidal or columnar
Located for wear and tear
Varied viability

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Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Quite rare
Location- some sweat and mammary glands
Typically 2 cell layers thick
Only apical layer columnar

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Transitional Epithelium

Forms lining of hollow urinary organs
Basal layer cells are cuboidal or columnar
Ability to change shape with stretch
Apical cells vary in appearance

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Glandular Epithelia

Gland
-One or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion
Classified by
-Site of product release
--endocrine or exocrine
Relative number of cells forming the gland
-unicellular (e.g. goblet cells) multicellular

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Endocrine Glands

Ductless glands
-Secretions not released into a duct
Secrete (by exocytosis) hormones that travel through lymph or blood to their specific target organs
Target organs respond in some characteristic way

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Exocrine Glands

Secretions released onto skin or into body cavities
More numerous than endocrine glands
Secrete products into ducts
Examples include mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands

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Unicellular Exocrine Glands

The only important unicellular glands are mucous cells and goblet cells
Found in epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tracts
All produce a substance that dissolves in water to form mucus

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Multicellular Exocrine Glands

Multicellular exocrine glands are composed of a duct and a secretory unit
Surrounded by supportive connective tissue
-Supplies blood and nerve fibers
-Extends into and divides glands into lobes

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Connective Tissue

Most abundant and widely distributed of primary tissues
4 main classes
-Connective Tissue Proper
-Cartilage
-Bone
-Blood

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Major Functions of Connective Tissue

Binding and Support
Protecting
Insulating
Storing reserve fuel
Transporting substances (blood)

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Characteristics of Connective Tissue

Three characteristics make connectivity tissues different from other primary tissues
-Have messenchyme (an embryonic tissue) as their common tissue of origin
-Have varying degrees of vascularity
-Have extracellular matrix
--Connective tissue not composed mainly of cells
--Largely nonliving extracellular matrix separates cells
-----So can bear weight, withstand tension, endure abuse

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Ground Substance

Unstructured material that fills space between cells
-Medium through which solutes diffuse between blood and capillaries and cells
Components
-Interstitial Fluid
-Cell adhesion proteins ("glue")
-Protein fibers

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Connective Tissue Fibers

3 types:
Collagen
Elastic Fibers
Reticular

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Collagen

Strongest and most abundant type
Provides high tensile strength

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Elastic Fibers

All for stretch and recoil
(Like a rubber band) (Elastic band)

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Reticular

Short, fine, highly branched fibers, internal framework
Branch, forming networks that offer more "give"

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Blast Cells

MAKE THE SUBSTANCE: mitotically active, secrete ground substance and fibers
-Fibroblasts in connective tissue proper
-Chrondroblasts in cartilage
-Osteoblasts in bone
-Stem cells in bone marrow

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Cyte

Mature form: MAINTAIN matrix
-Chondrocytes in cartilage
-Osteocytes in bone

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Fat cells

Store nutrients

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White blood cells

Tissue response to injury

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Mast cells

Initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganisms they detect

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Macrophages

Phagocytic cells that "eat" dead cells microorganisms; function in immune system

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Classification of Connective Tissue

All connective tissues expect bone, cartilage and blood
Two subclasses
-Loose Connective Tissues
--Areolar
--Adipose
--Reticular
-Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissues
--Dense Regular
--Dense Irregular
--Elastic

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Adipose

Similar to areolar but greater nutrient storage
Cell function
-Stores nutrients

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Reticular Connective Tissue

Resembles areolar but fibers are reticular fiber
Supports free blood cells in lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue

Closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running parallel to direction of pull
-Great resistance to pulling
-Fibers slightly wavy so stretch a little
Poorly vascularized
Make up tendons and ligaments

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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Same elements but bundles of collagen thicker and irregularly arranged
Resists tension from many directions
-Fibrous joint capsule

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Elastic Connective Tissue

Similar but more stretchy than dense regular connective tissue
Some ligaments very elastic
-Those connecting adjacent vertebrae

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Cartilage

Chondroblasts and chondrocytes
Tough but flexible
Lacks nerve fibers
Up to 80% water- can rebound after compression
Avascular
-Retrieves nutrients from membrane surrounding it
--Perichondrium
Three Types of Cartilage
-Hyaline Cartilage
-Elastic Cartilage
-Fibrocartilage

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Bone

Also called osseous tissue
Supports and protects body structures
Stores fat and synthesizes blood cells in cavities
Has inorganic calcium salts
Osteoblasts produce matrix
Osteocytes maintain the matrix
Richly vascularized

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Blood

Most atypical connective tissue- is a fluid
Suspension
Red blood cells most common cell type
Also contains white blood cells and platelets
Functions in transport

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Muscle Tissue

Highly vascularized
Responsible for most types of movement
Three Types
-Skeletal
-Cardiac
-Smooth

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Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Found in skeletal muscle
Voluntary

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Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Found in walls of heart
Involuntary

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Smooth Muscle Tissue

Mainly in walls of hollow organs other than heart
Involuntary

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Nervous Tissue

Main component of nervous system
-Brain, spinal cord, nerves
-Regulates and controls body functions
Neutrons
-Specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses

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Mucous Membranes

Mucosae
-line body cavities open to the exterior
(e.g. digestive, respiratory, urogenital tracts)
Moist membranes bathed by secretions (or urine)
May secrete mucus

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Serous Membranes

Serosae- found in closed ventral body cavity
Serous fluid between layers
Moist membranes
(E.g Pleurae, pericardium, peritoneum)

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Tissue Repair

Necessary when barriers are penetrated
Cells must divide and migrate
Occurs in two majors ways
-Regeneration
-Fibrosis

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Regenereation

Same kind of tissue replaces destroyed tissue
Original function restored
Same action

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Fibrosis

Connective tissue replaces destroyed tissue
Original function lost
Seared- no function

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Steps of Tissue Repair

Inflammation
Organization- restores blood supply
Regeneration and Fibrosis

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Inflammation

Release of inflammatory chemicals
Dilation of blood vessels
Increase in vessel permeability
Clotting occurs

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Organization- restores blood supply

Granulation tissue replaces clot
Epithelium regenerates
Collagen fibers form
Debris is phagocytized

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Regeneration and Fibrosis

Scab detaches
Tissue matures
Results in a fully regenerated epithelium with underlying scar tissue

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Regenerative Capacity in Different Tissues

Regenerate extremely well
-Epithelial tissues, bone, blood-forming tissue
Virtually no functional regenerative capacity
-Cardiac muscle and nervous tissue of brain and spinal

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Developmental Aspects

Primary "derm" layers
-Superficial to deep: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
-Specialize to form primary tissues