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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (67)
1

Articulation

Where two bones meet

2

Functions of Joints

Mobility
Stability

3

Two Classifications

Functional
Structural

4

Functional Classification

Based on
-Amount of movement joint allows

5

3 Functional Classification

Arthro-Joint
-Synarthroses- Syn- Doesn't Move
-Amphiarthroses- Amph- Little Movement
-Diathroses- Di- Freely Moveable

6

Structural Classification

Based on
-Material binding bones together
-Presence/absence of joint cavity
--Joint Cavity- Space between joint

7

3 Structural Classifications

Fibrous Joint
Cartilaginous Joint
Synovial Joint

8

Fibrous Joints

Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue
No joint cavity
Most movable
-Depends on length of connective tissue fibers

9

3 Types of Fibrous Joints

Sutures
Syndesmoses
Gomphoses

10

Fibrous Joints: Sutures

-Rigid, interlocking joints
-Immovable joints for protection of brain
-Contain short connective tissues fibers
-Allow for growth during youth
-In middle age, sutures ossify and fuse

11

Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses

Bones connected by ligaments
Fiber length varies so movement varies
-Little to no movement at inferior tibiofibular joint
-Large amount of movement at interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna

12

Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses

-Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets
-Fibrous connections
-No movement at all

13

Cartilaginous Joints

Bones united by cartilage
No joint cavity
Very little movable

14

2 Types of Cartilaginous Joints

Synchondroses
Symphyses

15

Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses

Bar/Plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones
-Temporary epiphyseal plate joints
-Cartilage of 1st rib with manubrium

16

Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses

Fibrocartilage unites bone
-Hyaline cartilage present as articular cartilage
Strong flexible amphiarthroses

17

Synovial Joints

Bones are separated by fluid-filled joint cavity
All are diarthrotic
-Lots of movement
Includes:
-All limb joints
-Most joints of body

18

Synovial Joints: 6 Distinguishing Features

1. Articular Cartilage: Hyaline Cartilage
2. Joint (synovial) Cavity
3. Articular (joint) Capsule
4. Synovial Fluid
5. Different Types of Reinforcing Ligaments
6. Nerves and Blood Vessels

19

Articular (Joint) Capsule

Two layers
-External Fibrous Layer
--Dense irregular connective tissue
-Inner Synovial Membrane
--Loose connective tissue
--Makes synovial fluid

20

Synovial Fluid

-Viscous, slippery filtrate of plasma and hyaluronic acid
-Lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage
-Contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris

21

Different Types of Reinforcing Ligaments

Capsular
-Thickest
Extracapsular
-Outside
Intracapsular
-Deep

22

Nerves and Blood Vessels

Nerve Fibers
-Detect pain
-Monitor joint position + stretch
Capillary beds supply filtrate for synovial fluid

23

Other Features of Some Synovial Joints (2)

Fatty Pads
Articular Discs (Menisci)

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Fatty Pads

For cushioning between fibrous layer and synovial membrane or bone

25

Articular Discs (Menisci)

Fibrocartilage separates articular surfaces to improve "fit" of bone ends, stabilize joint, and reduce wear and tear

26

Structures Associated with Synovial Joints (2)

Bursae
Tendon Sheaths

27

Bursae

Sacs lined with synovial membrane
-Contains synovial fluid
Reduce friction

28

Tendon Sheaths

Elongated bursa wrapped completely around tendon subjected to friction

29

3 Stabilizing Factors at Synovial Joints

-Shapes of articular surfaces
-Ligament number and location
-Muscle tendons that cross joint

30

Synovial Joints: Movements Allowed

All muscles attach to bone or connective tissue at no fewer than two points
-Origin- Beginning
-Insertion- Ending
-Muscle contraction causes insertion to move toward origin
Movement occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes

31

Synovial Joints: Range of Motion (3)

Uniaxial
Biaxial
Multiaxial

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Uniaxial

Movement in one plane

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Biaxial

Movement in two planes

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Multiaxial

Movement in or around all three planes

35

3 Types of Movement of Synovial Joints

Gliding
Angular Movements
Rotation

36

Gliding Movements

One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
-Intercarpal joints
-Intertarsal joints
-Between articular processes of vertebrae

37

Angular Movements

Increase or decrease angle between two bones
Sagittal or Frontal Plane

38

Sagittal Angular Movement

Flexion
-Decreases the angle of the joint
Extension
-Increases the angle of the joint
Hyperextension
-Movement beyond the anatomical position

39

Frontal Angular Movement

Abduction
-Movement away from the midline
Adduction
-Movement toward the midline

40

Rotation

Turning of bone around its own long axis
-Toward the midline or away from it
-Medial and lateral rotation
Examples
-Between C1 and C2 vertebrae
-Rotation of humerus and femur

41

Types of Synovial Joints (6)

-Plane
-Hinge
-Pivot
-Condylar
-Saddle
-Ball-and-Socket

42

Knee Joint

Largest, most complex joint of body
3 Joints surrounded by a single joint cavity
-Femoropatellar Joint
-Lateral and Medial Tibiofemoral Joints

43

Femoropatellar Joint

Plane joint
Allows gliding motion during knee flexion

44

Lateral and Medial Tibiofemoral Joints

Femoral condyles with lateral and medial menisci of tibia
Allow flexion, extension, and some rotation

45

Knee Joint

Capsule is reinforced by muscle tendons
-Quadriceps and Semimembranosus tendons
Joint capsule is thin

46

Capsular and Extracapsular Ligaments

-Help prevent hyperextension of knee
-Fibular and Tibial Collateral Ligaments

47

Intracapsular Ligaments

-Prevent anterior-posterior displacement
-Reside outside synovial cavity
Two Types
-Anterior Cruciate Ligament
-Posterior Cruciate Ligament

48

Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Attaches to anterior tibia

49

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

Attaches to posterior tibia

50

Knee Joint Injuries

Absorbs great vertical force
Vulnerable to horizontal blows, especially laterally blows to extended knee

51

3 C's of Knee Injuries

Collateral Ligaments
Cruciate Ligaments
Cartilages

52

Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint

Ball-and-Socket Joint
-Head of humerus with glenoid cavity of scapula
Most freely moving joint in body
-Stability sacrificed

53

Reinforcing Ligaments of Shoulder Joint

Primarily on anterior aspect
3 Glenohumeral Ligaments
-Weak and sometimes absent

54

Reinforcing Muscle Tendons of Shoulder Joint

4 Rotator Cuff Tendons encircle shoulder joint
-Subscapularis
-Infrapinatus
-Teres minor
-Supraspinatus

55

Elbow Joint

Articulation of radius and ulna with humerus
Hinge Joint
-Notch of Ulna with trochlea of humerus
-Flexion and extension only

56

Elbow Joint Ligaments

Anular Ligament
-Surrounds head of radius
Two Capsular ligaments restrict side-to-side movement
-Ulnar Collateral Ligament
-Radial Collateral Ligament

57

Hip (Coxal) Joint

Ball-and-socket Joint
-Head of femur articulates with acetabulum
Good range of motion
Rib of fibrocartilage- Acetabular Labrum
-Enhances depth of socket so hip dislocations are rare

58

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)

Mandibular condyle articulates with temporal bone
Two Types of movement
-Hinge- depression and elevation of mandible
-Gliding- side-to-side
Most easily dislocated joint in the body

59

Common Joint Injuries (4)

Cartilage Tears
Sprains
Dislocations
Subluxation

60

Cartilage Tears

-Due to compression and shear stress
-Fragments may cause joint to lock or bind
-Cartilage rarely repairs itself

61

Sprains

-Reinforcing ligaments stretched or torn
-Partial tears slowly repair heal
--Poor vascularization
3 options
-Ends sown together
-Replaced with grafts
-Time and immobilization

62

Dislocation (Luxation)

-Bones forced out of alignment
-Accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and difficultly moving joint
-Caused by serious falls or contact sports
-Must be reduced to treat (low swelling)

63

Subluxation

Partial dislocation of a joint

64

Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions

Bursitis
Tendonitis

65

Bursitis

-Inflammation of bursa, usually caused by blow or friction
-Treated with rest and ice, anti-inflammatory drug

66

Tendonitis

-Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
-Symptoms and treatment similar to bursitis

67

Arthritis

-More than 100 types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage joints
Symptoms
-pain
-stiffness
-swelling of joint
Chronic Forms
-Osteoarthritis
-Rheumatoid Arthritis
-Gouty Arthritis