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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (91)
1

Skeletal System (Fun Facts)

Composition- bones, cartilages, joints, ligaments
20% of body mass
Two major parts
-Axial
-Appendicular

2

Axial Skeleton

Consists of 80 bones
Three major regions
-Skull
-Vertebral Column
-Thoracic Cage

3

The Skull

Formed by 2 sets of bones
-Cranial Bones (Cranium)
-Facial Bones

4

Cranial Bones

Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity
-Cranial vault
-Cranial base: anterior, middle, and posterior fossae
Provide sites of attachment for head and neck muscles

5

Facial Bones

Framework of face
Cavities for special sense organs for sight, taste, and smell
Openings for air and food passage
Sites of attachment for teeth and muscles of facial expression

6

Skull Geography

Cranial cavity
Middle and internal ear cavities
Nasal cavity
Orbits
85 named openings
-Foramina, canals, fissures

7

Cranial Bones (Number)

8

8

Cranial Bones (Name)

Frontal Bone
Parietal Bones (2)
Occipital Bone
Temporal Bones (2)
Sphenoid Bone
Ethmoid Bone

9

Frontal Bone

Location
-Anterior portion of cranium
-Most of anterior cranial fossa
Superior walls of orbits
Contains air-filled frontal sinus

10

Parietal Bones and Major Associated Sutures

Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault
Four sutures mark articulations of parietal bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones
-Coronal suture
-Sagittal suture
-Lambdoid suture
-Squamous suture

11

Coronal Suture

Separates frontal and parietal

12

Sagittal Suture

Separates 2 parietals

13

Lambdoid Suture

Separates occipital and parietal

14

Squamous Suture

Separates temporal and parietal

15

Occipital Bone

Location
-Most of skull's posterior wall and posterior cranial fossa
-Articulates with 1st vertebra
Sites of attachment for ligamentum nuchae and many neck and back muscles
Foramen magnum

16

Temporal Bones

Location
-Inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of cranial base

17

Sphenoid Bone

Complex, bat-shaped bone
Keystone bone
-Articulates with all other cranial bones

18

Ethmoid Bone

Deepest skull bone
Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal cavities
Contributes to medial wall of orbits

19

Sutural Bones

Tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures

20

Facial Bones (Number)

14

21

Facial Bones (Name)

Mandible
Maxillary Bone
-Maxillae (2)
Zygomatic Bones (2)
Nasal Bones (2)
Lacrimal Bones (2)
Palatine Bones (2)
Vomer
Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)

22

Mandible

Lower jaw
Largest, strongest bone of face
Temporomandibular Joint
-Only freely movable joint in skull

23

Maxillary Bones

Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton
Keystone Bones
-Articulate with all other facial bones except mandible
Top part of mouth where upper teeth attach

24

Zygomatic Bones

Cheekbones
Inferolateral margins of orbits

25

Nasal Bones

Form bridge of nose

26

Lacrimal Bones

In medial walls of orbits
Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac

27

Palatine Bones

Posterior one-third of hard palate
Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity
Small part of the orbits

28

Vomer

Plow shaped
Inferior part of nasal septum

29

Orbits

Cavities that encase eyes and lacrimal glands
Sites of attachment for eye muscles
Formed by parts of seven bones

30

Nasal Cavity

Roof, lateral walls, and floor
Nasal septum of bone and hyaline cartilage
-Perpendicular plate of ethmoid
-Vomer
-Anterior septal cartilage

31

Paranasal Sinuses

Mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces
Lighten skull
Enhance resonance of voice
Warm and humidify air
-Think of breathing in cold
Found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones

32

Hyoid Bone

Not bone of skull
Does not articulate directly with another bone
Movable base for tongue
Site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech

33

Vertebral Column (Fun facts)

Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs
Surrounds and protects spinal cord
Flexible curved structure containing 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) in 5 major regions

34

5 Regions of Vertebral Column (And Number)

Cervical Vertebrae
-7 (neck)
Thoracic Vertebrae
-12 (ribs)
Lumbar Vertebrae
-5 (lower back)
Sacrum
Coccyx

35

Vertebral Column: Curvatures

Increase resilience and flexibility of spine
-Cervical and Lumbar curvatures
--Concave posteriorly
-Thoracic curvatures
--Concave anteriorly

36

Abnormal Spine Curvatures

Scoliosis- Frontal plane (S curve straight on)
Kyphosis- Sagittal plane (hunched over)
Lordosis- Sagittal plane (indentation in back)

37

Ligaments

Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
-From neck to sacrum
Ligamentum Flavum
-Connects adjacent vertebrae
Short ligaments
-Connect each vertebra to those above and below

38

Intevertebral Discs

Cushion-like pad composed of two parts
Nucleus Pulposus
Anulus Fibrosus

39

Nucleus Pulposus

Inner gelatinous nucleus
Gives disc its elasticity and compressibility

40

Anulus Fibrosus

Outer collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage

41

General Structure of Vertebrae

Body
Vertebral Arch
Vertebral Foramina
Intervertebral Formina

42

Body

Anterior weight-bearing region

43

Vertebral Arch

Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with body, encloses vertebral foramen

44

Vertebral Foramina

Together make up vertebral canal for spinal cord

45

Intervertebral Formina

Lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves

46

7 Processes per Vertebra

Spinous Process- projects posteriorly
Transverse Processes (2)- project laterally
Superior Articular Processes (2)- protrude superiorly
Inferior Articular Processes (2)- protrude inferiorly

47

Cervical Vertebrae

C1-C7: Smallest, lightest vertebrae
C3-C7: Share following features
-Oval body
-Spinous processes are bifid (except C7)
-Large, triangular vertebral foramen
-Transverse foramen in each transverse process
-C7 is vertebra prominens

48

Atlas

C1
-No body or spinous process
-Consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses
-Superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with occipital condyles
-Movement for "Yes"

49

Axis

C2
-Dens projects superiorly into anterior arch of atlas
--Is "missing" body of atlas
-Dens is a pivot for rotation of atlas
-Movement of "no"
-Breaking your neck would be breaking dens

50

Thoracic Vertebrae

T1-T12
-All articulate with ribs at facets
-Long, spinous process that points inferiorly
-Circular vertebral foramen
-Location of articular facets allows rotation of this area of spine

51

Lumbar Vertebrae

L1-L5
-Receives most stress
-Short, thick pedicles and laminae
-Flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes point posteriorly
-Vertebral foramen triangular
-Orientation of articular facets locks lumbar vertebrae together to prevent rotation

52

Sacrum

-5 fused vertebrae
-Forms posterior wall of pelvis
-Articulates with L5 superiorly, and with auricular surfaces of hip bones, forming sacroiliac joints

53

Coccyx

-Tailbone
-3-5 fused vertebrae
-Articulates superiorly with sacrum

54

Thoracic Cage

Composed of
-Posteriorly
-Anteriorly
-Laterally
Functions
-Protects vital organs
-Supports shoulder girdles and upper limbs
-Provides attachment sites for muscles of neck, back, chest, and shoulders

55

Sternum (Breastbone)

Three fused bones
-Manubrium (Superior portion)
--Articulates with clavicles and ribs 1 and 1
-Body (Mid-portion)
--Articulates with costal cartilages of ribs 2 and 7
-Xiphoid Process (Inferior Portion)
-Site of muscle attachment

56

Anatomical Landmarks of Sternum

Jugular Notch
Sternal Angle
Xiphisternal Joint

57

Jugular Notch

Central indentation in superior border of manubrium

58

Sternal Angle

Horizontal ridge across front sternum

59

Xiphisternal Joint

Point where sternal body and xiphiod process fuse

60

Ribs and Their Attachments

12 pairs total
-All attach to thoracic vertebrae
Pairs 1-7
-True (Vertebrosternal) Ribs
-Attach directly to sternum by individual costal cartilages

61

Ribs and Their Attachments

Pairs 8-12
False Ribs
-Pairs 8-10
--Attach indirectly to sternum by joining costal cartilage of rib above
Pairs 11-12 also called floating ribs
-no attachment to sternum

62

Bones of Limbs and Their Girdles

Pectoral Girdle
-Attaches upper limbs to body trunk
Pelvic Girdle
-Attaches lower limbs to body trunk

63

Pectoral Girdle

Clavicles and Scapulae
-Attach upper limbs to axial skeleton
-Provide attachment sites for muscles that move upper limbs

64

Clavicles (Collarbones)

-Cone-shaped sternal end articulates with sternum medially
-Flattened acromial end articulates laterally with scapula
-Anchor muscles
-Act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally

65

Scapulae (Shoulder Blades)

-On dorsal surface of rib cage
-Flat and triangular, with three borders and three angles
-Several large fossae named according to location

66

The Upper Limb

30 Bones form skeleton framework of each upper limb
-Arm- Humerus
-Forearm- Radius and Ulna
-Hand- Carpal, Metacarpal, Phalanges

67

Humerus

-Largest, longest bone of upper limb
-Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula
-Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna

68

Radius

-Lateral bone in forearm
-Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna
-Interosseous membrane connects radius and ulna along their entire length

69

Ulna

-Medial bone in forearm
-Forms major portion of elbow joint with humerus

70

Carpus

8 Bones of Wrist
Forms Wrist

71

Metacarpus

5 metacarpal bones
Forms Palm

72

Phalanges

Fingers
2 Bones in Thumb
3 Bones in Other 4 digits

73

Pelvic (Hip) Girdle

Two Hip bones and sacrum
-Attach lower limbs to axial skeleton with strong ligaments
-Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs
-Support pelvic organs
Less mobility but more stable than shoulder joint
3 fused together
-Ilium, Ischium, and Pubis
Bony pelvis formed by coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx

74

Female Pelvis

-Adapted for childbearing
-True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal
-Cavity of true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity

75

Male Pelvis

-Adapted for support of male's heavier build and stronger muscles
-Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep

76

Lower Limb

-Carries entire weight of erect body
-Subjected to exceptional forces if jump or run
-3 segments
--Thigh
--Leg
--Foot

77

Thigh Bones

Femur
Patella

78

Femur

-Largest and strongest bone in the body
-Length about 1/4 of person's height
-Articulates proximally with aceabulum of hip and distally with tibia and patella

79

Patella

-Sesamoid bone in quadriceps tendon

80

Leg Bones

Tibia
Fibula
*Both connected by interosseous membrane

81

Tibia

-Medial leg bone
-Receives weight of body from femur; transmit to foot

82

Fibula

-Not weight bearing: no articulation with femur
-Several muscles originate from fibula
-Articulates proximally and distally with tibia

83

Tarus

-7 Tarsal bones form posterior half of foot
-Body weight carried primarily by talus and calcaneus

84

Metatarsals

-5 metatarsal bones
-Enlarges head of metatarsal forms "ball of foot"

85

Phalanges

14 bones of toes
-Great toe has 2
-Rest of digits have 3

86

Arches of Foot

-Maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons
-Allows foot to bear weight
-3 arches
--Lateral Longitudinal
--Medial Longitudinal
--Transverse

87

Fetal Skull

Has more bones than adult
-mandible and frontal bones are unfused
-skull bones connect by fontanelles

88

Cleft Palate

No medial fusion of right and left halves of palate

89

Growth Rates

-At birth, cranium is huge relative to face
-At 9 months, cranium is 1/2 size adult size
-Mandible and maxilla are foreshortened but lengthen with age
-Arms and legs grow at faster rate than head and trunk, leading to adult proportions

90

Spinal Curvature

Primary thoracic and sacral curvatures obvious at birth
-Give spine a C shape
-Convex posteriorly
Secondary curvatures
-Cervical and lumbar - convex anteriorly
-Appear as child develops (lifts head, walk)

91

Old Age

Intervertebral discs
-several centimeter height loss common by 55
-Costal cartilage ossifies
All bones lose mass, so fracture risk increases